Vol. 100
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERC 145 [2024] PIERC 144 [2024] PIERC 143 [2024] PIERC 142 [2024] PIERC 141 [2024] PIERC 140 [2024] PIERC 139 [2024] PIERC 138 [2023] PIERC 137 [2023] PIERC 136 [2023] PIERC 135 [2023] PIERC 134 [2023] PIERC 133 [2023] PIERC 132 [2023] PIERC 131 [2023] PIERC 130 [2023] PIERC 129 [2023] PIERC 128 [2023] PIERC 127 [2022] PIERC 126 [2022] PIERC 125 [2022] PIERC 124 [2022] PIERC 123 [2022] PIERC 122 [2022] PIERC 121 [2022] PIERC 120 [2022] PIERC 119 [2022] PIERC 118 [2022] PIERC 117 [2021] PIERC 116 [2021] PIERC 115 [2021] PIERC 114 [2021] PIERC 113 [2021] PIERC 112 [2021] PIERC 111 [2021] PIERC 110 [2021] PIERC 109 [2021] PIERC 108 [2021] PIERC 107 [2021] PIERC 106 [2020] PIERC 105 [2020] PIERC 104 [2020] PIERC 103 [2020] PIERC 102 [2020] PIERC 101 [2020] PIERC 100 [2020] PIERC 99 [2020] PIERC 98 [2020] PIERC 97 [2019] PIERC 96 [2019] PIERC 95 [2019] PIERC 94 [2019] PIERC 93 [2019] PIERC 92 [2019] PIERC 91 [2019] PIERC 90 [2019] PIERC 89 [2019] PIERC 88 [2018] PIERC 87 [2018] PIERC 86 [2018] PIERC 85 [2018] PIERC 84 [2018] PIERC 83 [2018] PIERC 82 [2018] PIERC 81 [2018] PIERC 80 [2018] PIERC 79 [2017] PIERC 78 [2017] PIERC 77 [2017] PIERC 76 [2017] PIERC 75 [2017] PIERC 74 [2017] PIERC 73 [2017] PIERC 72 [2017] PIERC 71 [2017] PIERC 70 [2016] PIERC 69 [2016] PIERC 68 [2016] PIERC 67 [2016] PIERC 66 [2016] PIERC 65 [2016] PIERC 64 [2016] PIERC 63 [2016] PIERC 62 [2016] PIERC 61 [2016] PIERC 60 [2015] PIERC 59 [2015] PIERC 58 [2015] PIERC 57 [2015] PIERC 56 [2015] PIERC 55 [2014] PIERC 54 [2014] PIERC 53 [2014] PIERC 52 [2014] PIERC 51 [2014] PIERC 50 [2014] PIERC 49 [2014] PIERC 48 [2014] PIERC 47 [2014] PIERC 46 [2014] PIERC 45 [2013] PIERC 44 [2013] PIERC 43 [2013] PIERC 42 [2013] PIERC 41 [2013] PIERC 40 [2013] PIERC 39 [2013] PIERC 38 [2013] PIERC 37 [2013] PIERC 36 [2013] PIERC 35 [2013] PIERC 34 [2013] PIERC 33 [2012] PIERC 32 [2012] PIERC 31 [2012] PIERC 30 [2012] PIERC 29 [2012] PIERC 28 [2012] PIERC 27 [2012] PIERC 26 [2012] PIERC 25 [2012] PIERC 24 [2011] PIERC 23 [2011] PIERC 22 [2011] PIERC 21 [2011] PIERC 20 [2011] PIERC 19 [2011] PIERC 18 [2011] PIERC 17 [2010] PIERC 16 [2010] PIERC 15 [2010] PIERC 14 [2010] PIERC 13 [2010] PIERC 12 [2010] PIERC 11 [2009] PIERC 10 [2009] PIERC 9 [2009] PIERC 8 [2009] PIERC 7 [2009] PIERC 6 [2009] PIERC 5 [2008] PIERC 4 [2008] PIERC 3 [2008] PIERC 2 [2008] PIERC 1 [2008]
2020-02-20
A Narrow Beam, Beam Steerable and Low Side-Lobe Reflectarray Based on Macro Electro-Mechanical Technique
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 100, 73-82, 2020
Abstract
In this paper, an X-band, nonuniform and passive beam steering reflectarray antenna is presented. The beam steering is done with a small movement of a large element, i.e. the ground plane. The maximum ±7.5° beam scanning from the antenna broadside is achieved by only ±0.05λ ground tilting. In the proposed structure, the beam steering capability is provided by using passive elements that eliminate the need for active biased circuits. The linearity of beam scanning as a function of ground tilting is also investigated. Compared to the previous similar works, the antenna's half-power beamwidth and side lobe level are improved by about 9° and 20 dB, respectively. A primarily proposed reflectarray is fabricated to validate our claim.
Citation
Reza Asgharian, Bijan Zakeri, and Mohammad Yazdi, "A Narrow Beam, Beam Steerable and Low Side-Lobe Reflectarray Based on Macro Electro-Mechanical Technique," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 100, 73-82, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERC19120104
References

1. Nayeri, P., F. Yang, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, "Beam-scanning reflectarray antennas: A technical overview and state of the art," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 57, No. 4, 32-47, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2015.2453883.
doi:10.1109/MAP.2015.2453883

2. Mishra, N. K., S. Das, and D. K. Vishwakarma, "Beam steered linear array of cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna," AEU --- International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 98, 106-113, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2018.11.011.
doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.11.011

3. Derakhshan, A., J. Nourinia, and C. Ghobadi, "Electromechanical beamsteering reflectarray antenna for X-band applications," AEU --- International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 94, 145-149, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2018.06.030.
doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.06.030

4. Yuan, Q. and Q. Chen, "Ninja array antenna: Novel approach for low backscattering phased array antenna," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 12, No. 3, 346-353, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2017.0496.

5. Hum, S. V. and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, "Reconfigurable reflectarrays and array lenses for dynamic antenna beam control: A review," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 1, 183-198, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2013.2287296.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2287296

6. Brookner, E., "Phased-array radars: Past, astounding breakthroughs and future trends," Microw. J., Vol. 51, No. 1, 30-50, 2008.

7. Nasrollahi, H., M. Fallah, A. H. Nazeri, and A. Abdolali, "Novel algorithm for designing reflect-array antennas based on analytical methods," AEU --- International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 97, 280-289, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2018.09.016.
doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.09.016

8. Tahseen, M. M. and A. A. Kishk, "C-band linearly polarised textile-reflectarray (TRA) using conductive thread," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 11, No. 7, 982-989, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2016.0630.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2016.0630

9. Zhang, S., "Three-dimensional printed millimetre wave dielectric resonator reflectarray," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 11, No. 14, 2005-2009, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2017.0278.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2017.0278

10. Hum, S. V., M. Okoniewski, and R. J. Davies, "Realizing an electronically tunable reflectarray using varactor diode-tuned elements," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 15, No. 6, 422-424, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2005.850561.
doi:10.1109/LMWC.2005.850561

11. Li, Y. and A. Abbosh, "Reconfigurable reflectarray antenna using single-layer radiator controlled by PIN diodes," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 9, No. 7, 664-671, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2014.0227.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2014.0227

12. Legay, H., B. Pinte, M. Charrier, A. Ziaei, E. Girard, and R. Gillard, "A steerable reflectarray antenna with MEMS controls," IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology, 494-499, IEEE, Boston, MA, USA, 2003, https://doi.org/10.1109/PAST.2003.1257031.

13. Perez-Palomino, G., M. Barba, J. A. Encinar, R. Cahill, R. Dickie, P. Baine, et al. "Design and demonstration of an electronically scanned reflectarray antenna at 100 GHz using multiresonant cells based on liquid crystals," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 63, No. 8, 3722-3727, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2015.2434421.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2015.2434421

14. Yang, X., S. Xu, F. Yang, M. Li, Y. Hou, S. Jiang, et al. "A broadband high-efficiency reconfigurable reflectarray antenna using mechanically rotational elements," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 8, 3959-3966, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2017.2708079.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2017.2708079

15. Yang, X., S. Xu, F. Yang, M. Li, H. Fang, Y. Hou, et al. "A mechanically reconfigurable reflectarray with slotted patches of tunable height," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 17, No. 4, 555-5558, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2018.2802701.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2018.2802701

16. Romanofsky, R., C. Mueller, and C. V. Chandrasekar, "Concept for a low-cost, high-efficiency precipitation radar system based on ferroelectric reflectarray antenna,", NASA Technical Reports Server, Report No.: NASA/TM-2009-215663, E-17005, 2009.

17. Alizadeh, P., C. Parini, and K. Rajab, "Optically reconfigurable unit cell for Ka-band reflectarray antennas," Electron. Lett., Vol. 53, No. 23, 1526-1528, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1049/el.2017.1866.
doi:10.1049/el.2017.1866

18. Biswas, S. R., C. E. Gutierrez, A. Nemilentsau, I.-H. Lee, S.-H. Oh, P. Avouris, et al. "Tunable graphene metasurface reflectarray for cloaking, illusion, and focusing," Phys. Rev. Appl., Vol. 9, No. 3, 034021, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.034021.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.034021

19. Tamagnone, M. and J. R. Mosig, "Theoretical limits on the efficiency of reconfigurable and nonreciprocal graphene antennas," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 15, 1549-1552, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2016.2521835.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2016.2521835

20. Momeni Hasan Abadi, S. M. A., J. H. Booske, and N. Behdad, "MAcro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MÀMS) based concept for microwave beam steering in reflectarray antennas," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 120, No. 5, 054901, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4960352.
doi:10.1063/1.4960352

21. Mavridou, M., K. Konstantinidis, and A. P. Feresidis, "Continuously tunable mm-wave high impedance surface," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 15, 1390-1393, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2015.2510420.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2015.2510420

22. Huang, J. and J. A. Encinar, Reflectarray Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
doi:10.1002/9780470178775

23. Shaker, J., M. R. Chaharmir, and J. Ethier, Reflectarray Antennas: Analysis, Design, Fabrication, and Measurement, Artech House, 2013.

24. CST Microwave Studio [Internet], 2014 [cited 20 November 2018]. Available from: http://www.cst.com.

25. Sievenpiper, D., J. Schaffner, R. Loo, G. Tangonan, S. Ontiveros, and R. Harold, "A tunable impedance surface performing as a reconfigurable beam steering reflector," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 50, No. 3, 384-390, 2002, https://doi.org/10.1109/8.999631.
doi:10.1109/8.999631

26. Morabito, A. F., L. Di Donato, and T. Isernia, "Orbital angular momentum antennas: Understanding actual possibilities through the aperture antennas theory," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 60, No. 2, 52-67, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2018.2796445.
doi:10.1109/MAP.2018.2796445

27. Veysi, M., C. Guclu, F. Capolino, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Revisiting orbital angular momentum beams: Fundamentals, reflectarray generation, and novel antenna applications," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 60, No. 2, 68-81, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/MAP.2018.2796439.
doi:10.1109/MAP.2018.2796439