Electromagnetic wave absorption inside a human body is investigated. The human body has been modeled using 3D voxel based dataset considering different electrical parameters. At GSM 900 band, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) induced inside the human body model exposed to a radiating base station antenna (BSA) has been calculated for multiple number of carrier frequencies and input power of 20 W/carrier. Distance (R) of human body from BSA is varied in the range of 0.5 m to 5.0 m. Values of whole-body average SAR obtained by hybrid FDTD method closely match with that obtained by SFDTD method. For number of carrier frequency equal to five and R = 0.5 m, maximum value of whole-body average SAR obtained by both hybrid FDTD and SFDTD method is found to be 0.69 W/kg which decreases either with increase of R or decrease of number of carrier frequencies. Safety distance for general public is found to be 1.5 m for number of carrier frequencies equal to five. Summary of performance comparison shows that hybrid FDTD method is faster and requires less memory than SFDTD method.
1. Kundi, M. and H. P. Hutter, "Mobile phone base stations-effects on wellbeing and health," Pathophysiology, Vol. 16, 123-135, ELSEVIER, Aug. 2009. doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.008
2. Stalling, W., Wireless Communication and Networks, Prentice Hall, 2002.
3. Kumar, N. and G. Kumar, "Biological effects of cell tower radiation on human body," International Symposium on Microwave and Optical Technology (ISMOT), Dec. 2009, Available: http://briarcli®heights.org/bch/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/celltowerradiationeffects-100317162351-phpapp01.pdf.
4. Ali, F., R. R. Sahoo, and S. Ray, "Study of maximum local temperature rise and hotspots distribution in a human head for GSM900 mobile phone," International Conference on Eco-friendly Computing and Communication Systems (ICECCS), 72-78, Advances in Energy Aware Computing and Communication System, Tata McGraw Hill, India, Oct. 2013, ISBN-13:978-9-35-13432-5.
5. Lennart, H., "Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases," Pathophysiology, PATPHY-595, ELSEVIER, 2009.
6. Blackman, C. F., et al., "Effects of ELF fields on calciumion e²ux from brain tissue in vitro," Radiation Research, Vol. 92, 510-520, 1982. doi:10.2307/3575923
9. ICNIRP, "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time- varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (10 kHz to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, Vol. 74, No. 4, 494-522, Apr. 1998.
10. Council of the European Communities, "Recommendation of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)," O±cial Journal of the European Communities, L.199/59-61, Jul. 30, 1999.
11. Karwowski, A., "Evaluating exposure to radio-frequency emissions from base station antennas," 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 1877-1881, Dec. 2002, Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1045504&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1045504. doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2002.1045504
12. Karwowski, A., "Comparison of simple models for predicting radiofrequency fields in vicinity of base station antennas," Electronics Letters, Vol. 36, No. 10, 859-861, May 2000. doi:10.1049/el:20000669
13. Wu, Y. and I. Wassell, "Introduction to the segmented finite-difference time-domain method," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1364-1367, Mar. 2009. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2009.2012628
14. MATLAB 7.1, The MathWorks, Inc., , Available: http://www.mathworks.com.
15., , The Zubal Phantom data, MRI Head Phantom Data Description, Available: http://noodle.med.yale.edu/phantom//tissman/ArmsDownTiss3-6/vox tiss8.dat.
16., "Dielectric properties of the human body tissue in the frequency range of 10 Hz-100 GHz,", Available: http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop.
17. Ali, F. and S. Ray, "SAR analysis using SFDTD and hybrid FDTD," 5th International Conference on Computers and Devices for Communication (CODEC) MMT, 1-4, Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, India, Dec. 2012.
18. Kraus, J. D. and R. J. Marhefka, Antennas for All Applications, Tata Mc.Graw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, India, Third Reprint, 2003.
20. Ali, M. F. and S. Ray, "Study of EM wave absorption and shielding characteristics for a bonsai tree for GSM-900 band," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 49, 149-157, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIERC14031404