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2022-11-30
PIER C
Vol. 127, 113-125, 2022
download: 26
4-Port MIMO Antenna for Sub-1 GHz , IoT , and Sub-6 GHz 5G New Radio Applications
Bisma Bukhari Ghulam Mohd Rather
A 4-port planar multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system design is proposed. The antenna elements are modified meandered wideband antennas which cover frequencies from 674 MHz to 1 GHz, 1.9 GHz to 2.1 GHz, 3.175 GHz to 3.476 GHz, 4.529 GHz to 4.761 GHz and 5.254 to 5.513 GHz for long term evolution (LTE), Internet of Things (IoT), and sub-6 GHz applications and thus can be used for robotic navigation, logistics, healthcare, tracking, transportation etc. Due to very small envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) between the ports (< 0.5), the MIMO configuration can be efficiently implemented which helps in increasing the data rates. It is very compact in size and thus can be used for portable handheld devices. Since there is the problem of current localization due to common ground, the future work aims at minimizing coupling and improving the impedance matching using novel decoupling networks. These MIMO antennas are connected to a common slotted ground plane. Antenna simulation has been done using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio Suite simulator. A low cost FR-4 substrate with dimensions 65 mm × 90 mm × 1.6 mm has been used for antenna fabrication, and experimental results are obtained using an anechoic chamber and a vector network analyser. ECC and realized gain of the antenna are also obtained experimentally and are almost similar to the simulated results.
4-Port MIMO Antenna for Sub-1 GHz, IoT, and Sub-6 GHz 5G New Radio Applications
2022-11-30
PIER C
Vol. 127, 101-112, 2022
download: 29
Design of a Reconfigurable Band Notch Antenna for UWB Applications
Hua Jing Ge He Jiahao Sun Shengyao Wang
In order to improve the practicability and versatility of ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas, a reconfigurable band notch antenna is proposed in this paper. It has a compact size of 18 mm×16 mm×1.6 mm. The reconfigurable band notch function is realized by two small tunable units. The tunable unit makes up of a split ring resonator (SRR), a dielectric substrate, and a varactor diode. The simulation results show that the antenna combines the functions of band notch emergence, removal and movement. The applied reconfigurable method can effectively broaden the continuous movement range of band notch. The measurement proves that the antenna has the band notch reconfigurable function, and the measured results are in good agreement with the simulation ones. The radiation patterns are measured, which are stable and consistent under two modes with and without band notch, showing omnidirectional radiation characteristics. These research results provide reference value for the design of band notch UWB antenna shielding civil narrowband communication band.
Design of a Reconfigurable Band Notch Antenna for UWB Applications
2022-11-29
PIER C
Vol. 127, 83-99, 2022
download: 22
Hybrid Feature Selection Approach for Power Transformer Fault Diagnosis Based on Whale Optimization Algorithm and Extreme Learning Machine
Zhiyang He Tusongjiang Kari Yilihamu Yaermaimaiti Lin Du Yannan Zhou Zhichao Liu
To further improve fault diagnosis performance, a new hybrid feature selection approach combined with whale optimization algorithm and extreme learning machine is presented in this study. Firstly, three filter methods based on different evaluation metrics are employed to select and rank 25 input features derived from gases concentration values, gases ratio and energy-weighted dissolved gas analysis. Then, feature fusion approaches are applied to aggregate feature ranks and form a lower-dimension candidate feature subset. Afterwards, the whale optimization-based extreme learning machine model is implemented to optimize parameters and select optimal feature subsets. The accuracy of the model is used to evaluate the fault diagnosis capability of the concerned feature subsets. Finally, novel subsets are determined as the optimal feature subset to establish a fault diagnosis model. According to the experimental results, the average accuracy of the proposed approach is better than that of other conventional methods, which indicates that the optimal feature subset obtained by the proposed method can significantly promote the fault diagnosis accuracy of the power transformer.
Hybrid Feature Selection Approach for Power Transformer Fault Diagnosis Based on Whale Optimization Algorithm and Extreme Learning Machine
2022-11-28
PIER C
Vol. 127, 71-82, 2022
download: 21
A Dual Adaptive Inertia and Damping Control Strategy of ANFIS-VSG for Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wind Generator Systems
Yang Zhang Anping Chen Jiangwei Deng Yihan Liu Sicheng Li Zhun Cheng
In the conventional virtual synchronous generator (VSG) dual adaptive inertia and damping control schemes, the inertia J and damping D exhibit different variation patterns in different time intervals and are mutually constrained. To address this problem, an adaptive neural-fuzzy network inference system (ANFIS)-based dual adaptive inertia and damping VSG control technique applied to the direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous wind generator (D-PMSWG) system is proposed in this paper. In ANFIS-VSG, the controller is designed on the basis of the ANFIS control principle, and the input and output data are collected by PID control. The Sugeno-type ANFIS controller model is adopted to train the fuzzy inference system (FIS) online. Moreover, the virtual inertia and damping coefficients can be dynamically adjusted in real time according to the frequency variation without taking the different variations and mutual constraints of inertia J and damping D in different intervals into consideration, so the design difficulty and calculation process can be simplified, and the accuracy of the proposed control algorithm is enhanced through training. Furthermore, when the system is subject to load changes, integrating into the grid from an islanded state, and when the output power sets value steps, the power-frequency characteristics and the anti-interference capability of the three-phase output current of VSG can be improved. Finally, the proposed control strategy is simulated and analyzed based on Matlab/Simulink simulation software, which proves the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.
A Dual Adaptive Inertia and Damping Control Strategy of ANFIS-VSG for Direct-drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wind Generator Systems
2022-11-28
PIER C
Vol. 127, 61-70, 2022
download: 28
A Novel Balanced-to-Balanced Differential-Mode Negative Group Delay Microwave Circuit with Excellent Common-Mode Suppression
Zhongbao Wang Peng Han Qi Chen Hongmei Liu Shao-Jun Fang
A novel balanced-to-balanced differential-mode negative group delay (NGD) microwave circuit with excellent common-mode suppression is proposed. The proposed circuit consists of two sections of coupled lines, six transmission lines, and four open-circuited stubs. The coupled lines combined with the open-circuited stubs produce the NGD characteristic, which is connected by the λ/2 transmission lines to form a balanced structure for excellent common-mode suppression. To verify the proposed balanced circuit, a microstrip circuit prototype with a center frequency of f0 = 1.0 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. When the prototype is excited in differential mode, the measured NGD time at f0 is -3.45 ns with an NGD bandwidth of 16.6 MHz (991.7-1008.3 MHz), insertion loss of less than 2.88 dB, and return loss of more than 11.7 dB. Furthermore, the measured common-mode suppression is greater than 41 dB in the NGD band.
A Novel Balanced-to-balanced Differential-mode Negative Group Delay Microwave Circuit with Excellent Common-mode Suppression
2022-11-27
PIER C
Vol. 127, 49-59, 2022
download: 35
Polarization Reversal of Oblique Electromagnetic Wave in Collisional Beam-Hydrogen Plasma
Rajesh Gupta Ruby Gupta Suresh C. Sharma
Energetic ion or electron beams cause plasma instabilities. Depending on plasma and the beam parameters, an ion beam leads to change in the dispersion relation of Alfven waves on interacting with magnetoplasmas as it can efficiently transfer its energy to the plasma. We have derived dispersion relation and the growth rates for oblique shear Alfven wave in hydrogen plasma. The particles of the beam interact with the Shear Alfven waves only when they counter-propagate each other and destabilize left-hand polarized mode for parallel waves and left-hand as well as right-hand polarized modes for oblique waves, via fast cyclotron interaction. The collisions between beam ions and plasma components affect the growth rate and the frequency of generated Alfven waves, differently for right-hand (RH) and left-hand (LH) polarized oblique Alfven modes. For (ω + kzvbo > ωbc), the most unstable mode is the LH polarized oblique Alfven mode, and it is the RH polarized oblique Alfven mode for (ω + kzvbo < ωbc), which shows a polarization reversal after resonance condition. Numerical results indicate that the growth rates increase with increase in angle of propagation. The maximum growth rate values in the presence or absence of beam increase due to obliquity of wave.
Polarization Reversal of Oblique Electromagnetic Wave in Collisional Beam-Hydrogen Plasma
2022-11-25
PIER C
Vol. 127, 31-48, 2022
download: 46
Preamble-Based Synchronization for Communication-Assisted Chirp Sequence Radar
Mohamad Basim Alabd Benjamin Nuss Lucas Giroto de Oliveira Yueheng Li Axel Diewald Thomas Zwick
Chirp sequence has been adopted in automotive applications for its simple generation and flexible integration within radar-centric systems. Besides, recent studies have shown its ability to carry data between communicating vehicles in the surroundings. Since the parameters adopted from current automotive radar sensors can differ at the transmitter side dependent on the automotive supplier, the carrier alignment of the communication receiver of one of the communicated nodes might not concur with the one in the transmitter. This paper presents a novel two-stage synchronization method for communication-assisted chirp sequence (CaCS) signals. The proposed synchronization method applies a sequence of up- and down-chirp as a preamble to estimate frequency and time offsets during the transmission. The suggested synchronization scheme supports partial chirp modulation systems and can be adapted for similar radar-centric systems that employ chirp modulation. The former stage performs a coarse synchronization, reallocates the receive carrier frequency, and corrects eventual time offsets between the communication receiver from one CaCS-node and the transmitter of another node. The carrier allocation at the communication receiver side is based on a combination of spectrum sensing via short-time Fourier transforms and image processing to estimate the transmitting signal pattern (slope, frequency offset, and delay). The latter stage, in its turn, relies on range-Doppler estimation to perform a fine correction of time and frequency offsets and compensates residual offsets of the coarse synchronization stage. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the case of a multi-user scenario with mutual interference between the signals that affects the synchronization and communication data detection. Besides, measurements are provided based on two completely unsynchronized software-defined radios to validate the proposed method. The study also illustrates the influence of the signal-to-noise ratio on the proposed method and verifies it with simulations in MATLAB. As a result, the offsets at the investigated CaCS-node are returned to recover the transmitted data correctly.
Preamble-based Synchronization for Communication-assisted Chirp Sequence Radar
2022-11-21
PIER C
Vol. 127, 17-29, 2022
download: 25
Speed Sensorless Control of Bearingless Synchronous Reluctance Slice Motor Considering the Effect of Suspension Force Windings
Ruichen Li Huangqiu Zhu
In this paper, the effect caused by the suspension force windings on the torque windings in a bearingless synchronous reluctance slice motor (BsynRSM) is analyzed, and a new slide model observer is proposed to reduce the speed estimation vibration caused by this effect. Firstly, the effect of suspension force windings is analyzed in a Maxwell model. The suspension force windings will generate an asynchronous torque and current, which are similar to superimposing an asynchronous motor on the original motor. And a special Matlab/Simulink model is built. Secondly, the effect of current and torque generated by suspension force windings on speed sensorless is analyzed. The sliding mode observer (SMO) is studied considering the effect of suspension force windings. Simulation result shows that the current generated by suspension force windings of the BsynRSM will cause the estimate speed vibrating with the rotor vibration, and the frequency of speed estimation vibration is much higher than the additional current and torque generated by the suspension force windings. Thirdly, an improved SMO is proposed. By using the improved SMO, the amplitude and frequency of the speed estimation are obviously reduced. Finally, the improved SMO is verified on the experimental platform, which proves the feasibility of the method.
Speed Sensorless Control of Bearingless Synchronous Reluctance Slice Motor Considering the Effect of Suspension Force Windings
2022-11-21
PIER C
Vol. 127, 1-16, 2022
download: 43
TV-Based Phased Array System Design in BTSs for 5G/IoT Applications
Amir Reza Dastkhosh Mehdi Naseh Davide Dardari Fujiang Lin
Cellular UHF (Ultra High Frequency) transceiver networks and base transceiver station antenna systems comprise high power phase shifters for changing and adjusting the phases or delays of high-power transmitting signals delivered to antenna elements. In this work, theoretical and practical adjustment method of amplitudes and phases for electronic steering of a phased array antenna pattern are illustrated. In otherwords, a high power phase shifter with an asymmetric power divideris designed. The phases are changed and adjusted progressively, and thus the beam direction changes from -60° to 60°. The UHF phase shifter has been simulated in Advanced Design System (ADS) and CST STUDIO SUITE SPARK3D and measured. The simulations show that the designed and manufactured UHF phase shifter can also handle more than 20 KW and can be redesigned to reach up to more than 100 KW RF (Radio Frequency) power (microstrip/stripline structures) and can control/change phases of transmitting/receiving antennas. The phase shifter can be designed on any low loss substrate. By using this method in planar high power phased array antenna systems, 360° planar beam tilting is also achievable.zzz
TV-based Phased Array System Design in BTSs for 5G/IoT Applications