Vol. 77
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIER 176 [2023] PIER 175 [2022] PIER 174 [2022] PIER 173 [2022] PIER 172 [2021] PIER 171 [2021] PIER 170 [2021] PIER 169 [2020] PIER 168 [2020] PIER 167 [2020] PIER 166 [2019] PIER 165 [2019] PIER 164 [2019] PIER 163 [2018] PIER 162 [2018] PIER 161 [2018] PIER 160 [2017] PIER 159 [2017] PIER 158 [2017] PIER 157 [2016] PIER 156 [2016] PIER 155 [2016] PIER 154 [2015] PIER 153 [2015] PIER 152 [2015] PIER 151 [2015] PIER 150 [2015] PIER 149 [2014] PIER 148 [2014] PIER 147 [2014] PIER 146 [2014] PIER 145 [2014] PIER 144 [2014] PIER 143 [2013] PIER 142 [2013] PIER 141 [2013] PIER 140 [2013] PIER 139 [2013] PIER 138 [2013] PIER 137 [2013] PIER 136 [2013] PIER 135 [2013] PIER 134 [2013] PIER 133 [2013] PIER 132 [2012] PIER 131 [2012] PIER 130 [2012] PIER 129 [2012] PIER 128 [2012] PIER 127 [2012] PIER 126 [2012] PIER 125 [2012] PIER 124 [2012] PIER 123 [2012] PIER 122 [2012] PIER 121 [2011] PIER 120 [2011] PIER 119 [2011] PIER 118 [2011] PIER 117 [2011] PIER 116 [2011] PIER 115 [2011] PIER 114 [2011] PIER 113 [2011] PIER 112 [2011] PIER 111 [2011] PIER 110 [2010] PIER 109 [2010] PIER 108 [2010] PIER 107 [2010] PIER 106 [2010] PIER 105 [2010] PIER 104 [2010] PIER 103 [2010] PIER 102 [2010] PIER 101 [2010] PIER 100 [2010] PIER 99 [2009] PIER 98 [2009] PIER 97 [2009] PIER 96 [2009] PIER 95 [2009] PIER 94 [2009] PIER 93 [2009] PIER 92 [2009] PIER 91 [2009] PIER 90 [2009] PIER 89 [2009] PIER 88 [2008] PIER 87 [2008] PIER 86 [2008] PIER 85 [2008] PIER 84 [2008] PIER 83 [2008] PIER 82 [2008] PIER 81 [2008] PIER 80 [2008] PIER 79 [2008] PIER 78 [2008] PIER 77 [2007] PIER 76 [2007] PIER 75 [2007] PIER 74 [2007] PIER 73 [2007] PIER 72 [2007] PIER 71 [2007] PIER 70 [2007] PIER 69 [2007] PIER 68 [2007] PIER 67 [2007] PIER 66 [2006] PIER 65 [2006] PIER 64 [2006] PIER 63 [2006] PIER 62 [2006] PIER 61 [2006] PIER 60 [2006] PIER 59 [2006] PIER 58 [2006] PIER 57 [2006] PIER 56 [2006] PIER 55 [2005] PIER 54 [2005] PIER 53 [2005] PIER 52 [2005] PIER 51 [2005] PIER 50 [2005] PIER 49 [2004] PIER 48 [2004] PIER 47 [2004] PIER 46 [2004] PIER 45 [2004] PIER 44 [2004] PIER 43 [2003] PIER 42 [2003] PIER 41 [2003] PIER 40 [2003] PIER 39 [2003] PIER 38 [2002] PIER 37 [2002] PIER 36 [2002] PIER 35 [2002] PIER 34 [2001] PIER 33 [2001] PIER 32 [2001] PIER 31 [2001] PIER 30 [2001] PIER 29 [2000] PIER 28 [2000] PIER 27 [2000] PIER 26 [2000] PIER 25 [2000] PIER 24 [1999] PIER 23 [1999] PIER 22 [1999] PIER 21 [1999] PIER 20 [1998] PIER 19 [1998] PIER 18 [1998] PIER 17 [1997] PIER 16 [1997] PIER 15 [1997] PIER 14 [1996] PIER 13 [1996] PIER 12 [1996] PIER 11 [1995] PIER 10 [1995] PIER 09 [1994] PIER 08 [1994] PIER 07 [1993] PIER 06 [1992] PIER 05 [1991] PIER 04 [1991] PIER 03 [1990] PIER 02 [1990] PIER 01 [1989]
2007-08-27
Linear and Nonlinear Superimposed Bragg Grating: a Novel Proposal for All-Optical Multi-Wavelength Filtering and Switching
By
, Vol. 77, 243-266, 2007
Abstract
In this paper, the linear and nonlinear applications including optical filtering and switching of superimposed Bragg grating are presented. For realization of superimposed Bragg grating electrooptic effect is used. The introduced system acts as an optical chip. The induced superimposed index of refractions due to sampled electric potentials applied through metallic strips on electro-optically active core-cladding are investigated analytically and simulated numerically using the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). It is shown that the applied electric field induces superimposed refractive index grating, which can be controlled using amplitudes and frequency contents of potential samples as well as optical waveguide parameters. Our proposed structure is analog programmable device for realization of many interesting optical signal conditioners such as optical filters, optical beam splitters, and many other special transfer functions in linear case. The proposed device is tunable and can be controlled using the applied potential parameters (samples) and easily satisfy dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system demand specifications. The electro-optic Pockels effect for generation of the superimposed gratings in this building block will be used. Then we propose an optical chip for performing the introduced functions. In practical cases, for realization of DWDM demands, we need very large number of potential samples approximately 3 to 4 orders of magnitudes. So, this type of block as optical controllable chip really from practical point of views is impossible and illegal. In this paper, we will present a simple approach for decreasing the number of efficient control samples from outside for managing the proposed tasks. Our calculations in this paper shows that with less than approximately 200 control pins, we can realize all of proposed practical ideas with acceptable precision. Also, with 3 samples per period, our design will cover 215 individual DWDM channels theoretically from 1.55um towards lower wavelengths and 325 channels for 4 samples per period case, which is infinity from practical point of views. All of transfer functions corresponding to these channels can be manipulated using applied potential samples. Also, as nonlinear applications of the superimposed Bragg grating multi-wavelength optical switching is presented. For this purpose the switching operation is illustrated first and then switching thresholds in the case of three predefined wavelengths are shown. Thus we illustrate numerical results for demonstration of the ability of the proposed structure. At the same time, we investigate effects of the parameters of the proposed structure such as the nonlinear refractive index and the grating length (number of layers) on switching performance including threshold intensity and slope of transition function. The proposed structure can be used as multi-wavelength switching applicable to DWDM and multi wavelength communication systems.
Citation
Hassan Ghafoori-Fard Mohammad Moghimi Ali Rostami , "Linear and Nonlinear Superimposed Bragg Grating: a Novel Proposal for All-Optical Multi-Wavelength Filtering and Switching," , Vol. 77, 243-266, 2007.
doi:10.2528/PIER07072903
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=07072903
References

1. Erdogan, T., "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, No. 8, 1997.
doi:10.1109/50.618322

2. Zhao, J., X. Shen, and Y. Xia, "Beam splitting, combining, and cross coupling through multiple superimposed volume-index gratings," Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 33, 23-28, 2001.
doi:10.1016/S0030-3992(00)00109-2

3. Hruschka, P. C., U. Barabas, and L. Gohler, "Optical narrowband filter without resonances," Ser.: ELEC. ENERG., Vol. 17, 209-217, 2004.

4. Kulishov, M., "Interdigitated electrode-induced phase grating with an electrically switchable and tunable period," Applied Optics, Vol. 38, No. 36, 1999.

5. Kulishov, M., "Tunable electro-optic microlense array, I. Planar geometry," Applied Optics, Vol. 39, No. 14, 2000.

6. Kulishov, M. and X. Daxhelet, "Electro-optically reconfigurable waveguide superimposed gratings," Optics Express, Vol. 9, No. 10, 2001.

7. Kulishov, M., P. Cheben, X. Daxhelet, and S. Delprat, "Electrooptically induced tilted phase gratings in waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2001.
doi:10.1364/JOSAB.18.000457

8. Kulishov, M., X. Daxhelet, M. Gaidi, and M. Chaker, "Electronically reconfigurable superimposed waveguide longperiod gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 19, No. 8, 2002.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.19.001632

9. Kulishov, M., X. Daxhelet, M. Gaidi, and M. Chaker, "Transmission spectrum reconfiguration in long-period gratings electrically induced in pockels-type media with the help of a periodical electrode structure," J. Lightwave Technology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2004.
doi:10.1109/JLT.2004.825760

10. Glytsis, E. N., T. K. Gaylord, and M. G. Moharam, "Electric field, permittivity, and strain distributions induced by interdigitated electrodes on electrooptic waveguides," J. Lightwave Technology, Vol. LT-5, No. 5, 1987.

11. Ramaswami, R. and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks, A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, San Fransisco, CA, 1998.

12. Roberts, G. F., K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, M. Glick, D. McAuley, D. J. Kang, and M. Blamire, "Monolithic 2 × 2 Amplifying Add/Drop Switch for Optical Local Area Networking," ECOC '03, Vol. 3, 736-737, 2003.

13. Dugan, A., L. Lightworks, and J. C. Chiao, "The optical switching spectrum: A primer on wavelength switching technologies," Telecommun. Mag., No. 5, 2001.

14. Dobbelaere, P. D., K. Falta, L. Fan, S. Gloeckner, and S. Patra, "Digital MEMS for optical switching," IEEE Commun. Mag., No. 3, 88-95, 2002.
doi:10.1109/35.989763

15. Bregni, S., G. Guerra, and A. Pattavina, "State of the art of optical switching technology for all-optical networks," Communications World, 2001.

16. Mukherjee, B., Optical Communication Networks, Mc-Graw-Hill, New York, 1997.

17. Winful, H. G., J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 35, 379, 1979.
doi:10.1063/1.91131

18. Yariv, A., Quantum Electronics, John Wiley, 1989.

19. Nishihara, H., M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill, 1989.

20. Aberg, I., "High-frequency switching and kerr effect — Nonlinear problems solved with nonstationary time domain techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 17, 185-235, 1997.
doi:10.2528/PIER97021200

21. Golmohammadi, S., M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, A. Rostami, and A. Zarifkar, "Spectral analysis of fibonacci-class one-dimensional quasi-periodic structures," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 75, 69-84, 2007.
doi:10.2528/PIER07051902

22. Watanabe, K. and K. Yasumoto, "Two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering of non-plane incident waves by periodic structures," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 74, 241-271, 2007.
doi:10.2528/PIER07050902

23. Khalaj-Amirhosseini, M., "Analysis of periodic and aperiodic coupled nonuniform transmission lines using the fourier series expansion," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 15-26, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER06072701

24. Watanabe, K. and K. Kuto, "Numerical analysis of optical waveguides based on periodic fourier transform," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 64, 1-21, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER06060802

25. Khalaj-Amirhosseini, M., "Scattering of inhomogeneous twodimensional periodic dielectric gratings," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 60, 165-177, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER05112601

26. Aissaoui, M., J. Zaghdoudi, M. Kanzari, and B. Rezig, "Optical properties of the quasi-periodic one-dimensional generalized multilayer Fibonacci structures," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 59, 69-83, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER05091701

27. Zheng, G., A. A. Kishk, A. W. Glisson, and A. B. Yakovlev, "A novel implementation of modified Maxwell's equations in the periodic finite-difference time-domain method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 59, 85-100, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER05092601

28. Zheng, G., A. A. Kishk, A. W. Glisson, and A. B. Yakovlev, "Implementation of Mur's absorbing boundaries with periodic structures to speed up the design process using finite-difference time-domain method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 58, 101-114, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER05062103

29. Biswas, A., Shwetanshumala, and S. Konar, "Dynamically stable dispersion-managed optical solitons with parabolic law nonlinearity," J. Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 10, 1249-1258, 2006.
doi:10.1163/156939306777443006

30. Maurya, S. N., V. Singh, B. Prasad, and S. P. Ojha, "Modal analysis and waveguide dispersion of an optical waveguide having a cross-section of the shape of a cardioid," J. Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 15, 1021-1035, 2006.
doi:10.1163/156939306776930277

31. Wu, C. J., "Transmission and reflection in a periodic superconductor/ dielectric film multilayer structure," J. Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1991-1996, 2005.
doi:10.1163/156939305775570468