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2013-10-18
PIER
Vol. 142, 799-823, 2013
download: 134
Circuit and Multipolar Approaches to Investigate the Balance of Powers in 2D Scattering Problems (Invited Paper)
Inigo Liberal Inigo Ederra Ramon Gonzalo Richard Ziolkowski
Circuit and multipolar approaches are presented to investigate the correlation between absorption and scattering processes in 2D problems. This investigation was inspired by earlier works of Prof.R.E. Collin, which pointed out deficiencies of the Th'evenin/Norton circuit models to evaluate the scattered and absorbed powers associated with receiving antennas and, thus, encouraged research on new analytical tools to address these problems. Power balance results are obtained with both circuit and multipolar approaches that are fully consistent. This analysis serves to illustrate how the correlation between absorption and scattering processes results in upper bounds for their power magnitudes, as well as stringent design trade-offs in both far-field and near-field source and scattering technologies.
CIRCUIT AND MULTIPOLAR APPROACHES TO INVESTIGATE THE BALANCE OF POWERS IN 2D SCATTERING PROBLEMS (Invited Paper)
2013-10-18
PIER
Vol. 142, 771-798, 2013
download: 136
Polarization-Agile Ads-Interleaved Planar Arrays
Giacomo Oliveri Leonardo Lizzi Fabrizio Robol Andrea Massa
This paper presents a class of polarization-agile arrays with controlled sidelobes. The architecture is based on the interleaving of two independently polarized sub-arrays through a deterministic strategy derived from Almost Difference Sets (ADSs). The efficiency, flexibility and reliability of the proposed design technique is assessed by means of a set of numerical simulations. Moreover, selected experiments aimed at comparing the performances of the presented approach with state-of-the-art design are provided. Finally, mutual coupling effects are numerically analyzed and discussed.
POLARIZATION-AGILE ADS-INTERLEAVED PLANAR ARRAYS
2013-10-16
PIER
Vol. 142, 743-770, 2013
download: 142
Parameter Selection and Accuracy in Type-3 Non-Uniform FFTs Based on Gaussian Gridding
Amedeo Capozzoli Claudio Curcio Angelo Liseno Antonio Riccardi
We provide a sucient condition to select the parameters of Type 3 Non-Uniform Fast Fourier Transform (NUFFT) algorithms based on the Gaussian gridding to ful ll a prescribed accuracy. This is a problem of signi cant interest in many areas of applied electromagnetics, as for example fast antenna analysis and synthesis and fast calculation of the scattered elds, as well as in medical imaging comprising ultrasound tomography, computed axial tomography, positron emission tomogr aphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The approach is related to the one dimensional case and follows the work in A. Dutt and V. Rokhlin, SIAM J. Sci. Comp. 14 (1993). The accuracy of the proposed choice is rst numerically assessed and then compared to that achieved by the approach in J.-Y. Lee and L. Greengard, J. Comp. Phys. 206 (2005). The convenience of the strategy devised in this paper is shown. Finally, the use of the Type 3 NUFFT is highlighted for an electromagnetic application consisting of the implementation of the aggregation and disaggregation steps in the fast calculation of the scattered eld by the Fast Multipole Method.
PARAMETER SELECTION AND ACCURACY IN TYPE-3 NON-UNIFORM FFTS BASED ON GAUSSIAN GRIDDING
2013-10-14
PIER
Vol. 142, 721-742, 2013
download: 121
Performance Analysis of Bistatic Interferometer Based on Spaceborne SAR
Qilei Zhang Wenge Chang
This paper presents the performance analysis of Bistatic Interferometer BAsed on Spaceborne SAR (BIBASS). As a bistatic system with general configuration, the system response of BIBASS is azimuth/range dependent. Taking into account this peculiarity, the appropriate theoretical framework is developed to make a more accurate evaluation of the performance of BIBASS. Firstly, the interferometric features are studied. Then, considering all kinds of de-correlation factors, a comprehensive investigation of coherence of such a system is conducted, followed by the relative height accuracy analysis. The theoretical analysis and simulation show that BIBASS, with the ability of high-precision height measurement, can be widely applied as a novel remote sensing measurement system.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BISTATIC INTERFEROMETER BASED ON SPACEBORNE SAR
2013-10-11
PIER
Vol. 142, 701-719, 2013
download: 152
Effects of the Inductive Port of Blumlein Transmission Line on the Reflection and Transmission Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves
Yu Zhang Jinliang Liu
The Blumlein transmission line (BTL) has broad applications in pulse modulation, microwave technology and pulsed power technology. In this paper, a new theoretical method for variable reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at the inductive port of transmission line is put forward, in order to analyze the wave reflection characteristics of BTL at the inductive port formed by a saturated magnetic switch. At the inductive port, the variable reflection and transmission mechanisms of the voltage waves traveling through the BTL are analyzed in detail, and the inductive effects on the square voltage pulse of load formed by the BTL are also studied. Simulation and experimental results both demonstrated the proposed new theoretical method which shows great value on high-power microwave technology, high-power pulse forming, pulse shaping and modulation.
EFFECTS OF THE INDUCTIVE PORT OF BLUMLEIN TRANSMISSION LINE ON THE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
2013-10-10
PIER
Vol. 142, 683-699, 2013
download: 129
DC Magnetic Concentrator and Omnidirectional Cascaded Cloak by Using Only One OR Two Homogeneous Anisotropic Materials of Positive Permeability
Fei Sun Sailing He
A novel concentrator for static magnetic field enhancement is proposed and designed utilizing transformation optics. Compared with other devices for static magnetic field enhancement, our device has many good features: first, our concentrator can achieve a DC magnetic field enhancement in a relatively large free space with high uniformity. Secondly, our concentrator is composed by only one or two homogenous anisotropic materials with principal value greater than zero (without any infinitely large or zero value), which can be achieved by using currently available materials. Thirdly, the geometrical shape of the proposed device determines the enhancement factor and the permeability of the device. After choosing suitable geometrical parameters, we can obtain a concentration with a suitable enhancement factor and a material requirement that is easily achievable. The proposed concentrator will have many important applications in many areas (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic sensors). Based on the same theoretical model, we also proposed a cascaded shielding device cloak for static magnetic fields. The proposed DC magnetic shielding device can be realized without using any material of zero permeability, and will have potential applications in, e.g., hiding a metallic object from being detected by a metal locator.
DC MAGNETIC CONCENTRATOR AND OMNIDIRECTIONAL CASCADED CLOAK BY USING ONLY ONE OR TWO HOMOGENEOUS ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS OF POSITIVE PERMEABILITY
2013-10-09
PIER
Vol. 142, 667-681, 2013
download: 131
Vectorial Electric Field Monte Caro Simulations for Focused Laser Beams (800 nm -2220 nm ) in a Biological Sample
Fuhong Cai Jiaxin Yu Sailing He
Here we develop a method that combines vectorial electric field Monte Carlo simulation with Huygens-Fresnel principle theory to determine the intensity distribution of a focused laser beam in a biological sample. The proper wavelengths for deep tissue imaging can be determined by utilizing our method. Furthermore, effects of anisotropic factor, scattering and absorption coefficients on the focal spots are analyzed. Finally, the focal beams formed by objective lenses with different values of numerical aperture are also simulated to study the focal intensity in the biological sample.
VECTORIAL ELECTRIC FIELD MONTE CARO SIMULATIONS FOR FOCUSED LASER BEAMS (800 NM-2220 NM) IN A BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE
2013-10-09
PIER
Vol. 142, 639-665, 2013
download: 136
Polarimetric SAR Model for Soil Moisture Estimation Over Vineyards at C-Band
Josep David Ballester-Berman Fernando Vicente-Guijalba Juan Manuel Lopez-Sanchez
In this paper we propose a two-component polarimetric model for soil moisture estimation on vineyards suited for C-band radar data. According to a polarimetric analysis carried out here, this scenario is made up of one dominant direct return from the soil and a multiple scattering component accounting for disturbing and nonmodeled signal fluctuations from soil and short vegetation. We propose a combined X-Bragg/Fresnel approach to characterize the polarized direct response from soil. A validation of this polarimetric model has been performed in terms of its consistency with respect to the available data both from RADARSAT-2 and from indoor measurements. High inversion rates are reported for different phenological stages of vines, and the model gives a consistent interpretation of the data as long as the volume component power remains about or below 50% of the surface contribution power. However, the scarcity of soil moisture measurements in this study prevents the validation of the algorithm in terms of the accuracy of soil moisture retrieval and an extensive campaign is required to fully demonstrate the validity of the model. Different sources of mismatches between the model and the data have been also discussed and analyzed.
POLARIMETRIC SAR MODEL FOR SOIL MOISTURE ESTIMATION OVER VINEYARDS AT C-BAND
2013-09-27
PIER
Vol. 142, 625-638, 2013
download: 150
Broadband Millimeterwave Metamaterial Absorber Based on Embedding of Dual Resonators
Pramod Singh Shideh Kabiri Ameri Liu Chao Mohammed Nurul Afsar Sameer Sonkusale
Metamaterial based electromagnetic wave absorbers provide perfect absorption only over a narrow bandwidth. In this paper, broadband response is achieved through embedding of one resonator inside another in each unit cell of the metamaterial absorber lattice. These two resonators are oriented in the same direction to achieve reduced coupling between them realizing two absorption frequencies close to each other in order to broaden the effective bandwidth. Paper presents such an absorber at 77 GHz with a bandwidth of 8 GHz with the peak absorption of greater than 98%. The absorber is fabricated on 125 μm thin and flexible polyimide substrate by patterning gold thin film in the shape of two split ring resonators as the metamaterial unit cell. The bandwidth is enhanced by more than a factor of two compared to what could be achieved from a metamaterial with single resonator structure.
BROADBAND MILLIMETERWAVE METAMATERIAL ABSORBER BASED ON EMBEDDING OF DUAL RESONATORS
2013-09-27
PIER
Vol. 142, 615-624, 2013
download: 124
Casimir Force for Arbitrary Objects Using the Argument Principle and Boundary Element Methods
Phillip R. Atkins Qi Dai Wei E. I. Sha Weng Cho Chew
Recent progress in the simulation of Casimir forces between various objects has allowed traditional computational electromagnetic solvers to be used to find Casimir forces in arbitrary three-dimensional objects. The underlying theory to these approaches requires knowledge and manipulation of quantum field theory and statistical physics. We present a calculation of the Casimir force using the method of moments via the argument principle. This simplified derivation allows greater freedom in the moment matrix where the argument principle can be used to calculate Casimir forces for arbitrary geometries and materials with the use of various computational electromagnetic techniques.
CASIMIR FORCE FOR ARBITRARY OBJECTS USING THE ARGUMENT PRINCIPLE AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS
2013-09-25
PIER
Vol. 142, 591-613, 2013
download: 140
Miniaturized 0.3-6 GHz LTCC Six-Port Receiver for Software Defined Radio
Cristina de la Morena-Álvarez-Palencia Mateo Burgos-Garcia Javier Gismero-Menoyo
The six-port architecture reemerges from the search of low-cost, multi-band and multi-standard transceivers. Its inherent advantages, especially its broadband behavior, make this a structure a good candidate to implement a Software Defined Radio (SDR). However, broadband six-port network designs lead to large size circuits, especially for operating frequencies in the lower gigahertz region. New technologies must be explored in order to achieve compact size and low-cost productions for configurable radio terminals and mobile communication applications. In this paper, the Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is proposed for implementing a broadband six-port receiver. A compact (30 mm × 30 mm × 1.25 mm) four-octave LTCC sixport receiver is presented. Experimental demodulation results show a good performance over the frequency range from 0.3 to 6 GHz. The demodulation of up to 15.625 Msymbol/s signals, i.e., 93.6 Mbps for 64-QAM, has been satisfactorily performed, with a measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) value of 3.7%.
MINIATURIZED 0.3-6 GHZ LTCC SIX-PORT RECEIVER FOR SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO
2013-09-23
PIER
Vol. 142, 579-590, 2013
download: 154
Static Magnetic Field Concentration and Enhancement Using Magnetic Materials with Positive Permeability
Fei Sun Sailing He
In this paper a novel compressor for static magnetic fields is proposed based on finite embedded transformation optics. When the DC magnetic field passes through the designed device, the magnetic field can be compressed inside the device. After it passes through the device, one can obtain an enhanced static magnetic field behind the output surface of the device (in a free space region). We can also combine our compressor with some other structures to get a higher static magnetic field enhancement in a free space region. In contrast with other devices based on transformation optics for enhancing static magnetic fields, our device is not a closed structure and thus has some special applications (e.g., for controlling magnetic nano-particles for gene and drug delivery). The designed compressor can be constructed by using currently available materials or DC meta-materials with positive permeability. Numerical simulation verifies good performance of our device.
STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD CONCENTRATION AND ENHANCEMENT USING MAGNETIC MATERIALS WITH POSITIVE PERMEABILITY
2013-09-22
PIER
Vol. 142, 559-578, 2013
download: 116
Lasso Based Performance Evaluation for Sparse One-Dimensional Radar Problem Under Random Sub-Sampling and Gaussian Noise
Yin Xiang Bingchen Zhang Wen Hong
Sparse microwave imaging is the combination of microwave imaging and sparse signal processing, which aims to extract physical and geometry information of sparse or transformed sparse scene from least number of radar measurements. As a primary investigation on its performance, this paper focuses on the performance guarantee for a one-dimensional radar, which detects delays of several point targets located at a sparse scene via randomly sub-sampling of radar returns. Based on the Lasso framework, the quantity relationship among three important factors is discussed, including the sub-sampling ratio ρM, sparse ratio ρK and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), where ρM is the ratio of number of random sub-sampling to that of Nyquist's sampling, and ρK is the ratio of sparsity to the number of unknowns. In particular, to ensure correct delay detection and accurate back scattering coefficient reconstruction for each target, one needs ρM to be greater than C(ρK)ρKlogN and the input SNR be of order logN, where N is the number of range cells in scene.
LASSO BASED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR SPARSE ONE-DIMENSIONAL RADAR PROBLEM UNDER RANDOM SUB-SAMPLING AND GAUSSIAN NOISE
2013-09-17
PIER
Vol. 142, 545-557, 2013
download: 118
Novel Energy Harvesting Antenna Design Using a Parasitic Radiator
Jung-Ick Moon Young-Bae Jung
A novel energy harvesting antenna for various wireless transceivers is proposed. This antenna is composed of two parts, the main and the parasitic radiator. The main radiator has the same role as a general element antenna. i.e., to transmit and receive the RF signal. The parasitic radiator is used to gather the RF power from the main radiators, which mostly do not contribute the main radiator's electrical performance. Thus, we can generate DC power using the dissipated RF energy that is radiated from the main radiator. The main radiator is designed as a printed dipole and the parasitic radiator has a two-turn loop structure fabricated on a substrate. The main radiator is vertically placed on the ground and inserted in the rectangular slit of the substrate of the parasitic radiator. The height of the parasitic radiator can be controlled by two supporters. In the design process, we analyzed how the antenna performance changed when adjusting the height of the parasitic radiator and thus determined its optimal height.
NOVEL ENERGY HARVESTING ANTENNA DESIGN USING A PARASITIC RADIATOR
2013-09-17
PIER
Vol. 142, 523-544, 2013
download: 130
Hp-FEM and PML Analysis of Plasmonic Particles in Layered Media
Mengyu Wang Kersten Schmidt Aytac Alparslan Christian V. Hafner
In this paper, we introduce a high order finite element (FEM) implementation using perfectly matched layer (PML) for the scattering by plasmonic structures inside layered media. The PML is proven to be very accurate and efficient by a comparative analysis with a commercial FEM software and the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP). A convergence analysis using hp-adaptive refinement inside the PML layer shows that adaptive mesh refinement inside the PML layer is most efficient. Based on this convergence analysis an hp-strategy is proposed, which shows a remarkable error reduction for small additional computational costs.
HP-FEM AND PML ANALYSIS OF PLASMONIC PARTICLES IN LAYERED MEDIA
2013-09-16
PIER
Vol. 142, 505-521, 2013
download: 206
Extended High Resolution Range Profile-Jet Engine Modulation Analysis with Signal Eccentricity
Ji-Hoon Park Woo-Yong Yang Jun-Woo Bae Seong-Cheol Kang Noh-Hoon Myung
In this paper, high resolution range profile-jet engine modulation (HRRP-JEM) analysis is extended by including quantitative estimation of the jet engine location and extraction of the JEM micro-Doppler component. Based on a parametric model of the range cell data, signal eccentricity was introduced for the purpose of determining the jet engine location. Then, complex empirical mode decomposition (CEMD) was employed to extract the embedded JEM component. The signal eccentricity also served as an auxiliary means of CEMD-based micro-Doppler extraction. Application to the simulated HRRP-JEM data demonstrated that the analysis results described in this paper could be useful for advanced radar target recognition with HRRP-JEM.
EXTENDED HIGH RESOLUTION RANGE PROFILE-JET ENGINE MODULATION ANALYSIS WITH SIGNAL ECCENTRICITY
2013-09-13
PIER
Vol. 142, 485-503, 2013
download: 104
An Impulse Sampling Approach for Efficient 3D TLM-Based Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis
Osman S. Ahmed Mohamed H. Bakr Xun Li
We present a memory efficient algorithm for the estimation of adjoint sensitivities with the transmission line modeling (TLM) method. Our algorithm manipulates the local scattering matrices to drastically reduce the required storage for problems with lossy dielectric discontinuities. Only one impulse per cell is stored for two dimensional simulations and three impulses per cell are stored for three dimensional simulations. The required memory storage for our impulse sampling approach is only 10% of that of the original TLM-based adjoint sensitivity analysis. The technique is illustrated through two examples including the sensitivity analysis of a dielectric resonator antenna.
AN IMPULSE SAMPLING APPROACH FOR EFFICIENT 3D TLM-BASED ADJOINT SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
2013-09-11
PIER
Vol. 142, 463-483, 2013
download: 164
Full-Vectorial Parallel Finite-Element Contrast Source Inversion Method
Amer Zakaria Ian Jeffrey Joe LoVetri Amer Zakaria
The multiplicatively regularized finite-element contrast source inversion algorithm (MR-FEM-CSI) is used to solve the full-vectorial three-dimensional (3D) inverse scattering problem. The contrast and contrast-source optimization variables are located at the centroids of tetrahedra within the problem domain; whereas the electric field is expanded in terms of edge basis functions on the same tetrahedra. A dual-mesh is created in order to apply the multiplicative regularization. To handle large-scale problems the inversion algorithm is parallelized using the MPI library, with sparse matrix and vector computations supported by PETSc. The algorithm is tested using experimental datasets obtained from the Institut Fresnel database. A synthetic example shows that the technique is able to successfully image moisture hot-spots within a partially lled grain bin.
FULL-VECTORIAL PARALLEL FINITE-ELEMENT CONTRAST SOURCE INVERSION METHOD
2013-09-11
PIER
Vol. 142, 437-462, 2013
download: 227
Dipole Radiation Near Anisotropic Low-Permittivity Media (Invited Paper)
Mohammad Memarian George Eleftheriades
We investigate radiation of a dipole at or below the interface of (an)isotropic Epsilon Near Zero (ENZ) media, akin to the classic problem of a dipole above a dielectric half-space. To this end, the radiation patterns of dipoles at the interface of air and a general anisotropic medium (or immersed inside the medium) are derived using the Lorentz reciprocity method. By using an ENZ halfspace, air takes on the role of the denser medium. Thus we obtain shaped radiation patterns in air which were only previously attainable inside the dielectric half-space. We then follow the early work of Collin on anisotropic artificial dielectrics which readily enables the implementation of practical anisotropic ENZs by simply stacking sub-wavelength periodic bi-layers of metal and dielectric at optical frequencies. We show that when such a realistic anisotropic ENZ has a low longitudinal permittivity, the desired shaped radiation patterns are achieved in air. In such cases the radiation is also much stronger in air than in the ENZ media, as air is the denser medium. Moreover, we investigate the subtle differences of the dipolar patterns when the anisotropic ENZ dispersion is either elliptic or hyperbolic.
DIPOLE RADIATION NEAR ANISOTROPIC LOW-PERMITTIVITY MEDIA (Invited Paper)
2013-09-11
PIER
Vol. 142, 423-435, 2013
download: 107
Vertical Cascaded Planar EBG Structure for SSN Suppression
Ling-Feng Shi Hong-Feng Jiang
A novel vertical cascaded planar electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is proposed for SSN suppression with the ultra-wideband at the restraining depth of -30 dB by analyzing the simultaneous switching noise (SSN) suppression mechanism and the equivalent circuit model for EBG structure. Moreover, the SSN suppression bandwidth can be broadened by using different novel EBG structures required by vertically cascading different planar EBG structures. In addition, the structure is verified to meet signal integrity (SI) by the time-domain simulation. The tested results show that the presented EBG is accordant to the simulated results of the theory method by the vector network analyzer. The proposed structures provide a new designing method for EBG structures to improve the ability of suppressing SSN.
VERTICAL CASCADED PLANAR EBG STRUCTURE FOR SSN SUPPRESSION