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2011-04-15
PIER
Vol. 115, 509-523, 2011
download: 379
A Compact Microstrip Rat-Race Coupler with Modified Lange and T-Shaped Arms
Guo-Qing Liu Lin-Sheng Wu Wen-Yan Yin
A compact microstrip rat-race coupler is proposed with a new phase inverter which is realized by a modified Lange coupling structure with a slotted ground plane and a floating-potential conductor. Based on the evenand odd-mode theory, its parameters are generally synthesized. In order to further miniaturize the rat-race coupler, a T-shaped line is utilized. A prototype operating at 2.0 GHz is designed and fabricated for verification. The circumference of our proposed rat-race coupler is only 0.52λ. Its in-phase and out-of-phase bandwidths are also enhanced, with reasonable agreement obtained between its simulated and measured S-parameters.
A COMPACT MICROSTRIP RAT-RACE COUPLER WITH MODIFIED LANGE AND T-SHAPED ARMS
2011-04-15
PIER
Vol. 115, 495-507, 2011
download: 141
Practicability Analysis and Application of PBG Structures on Cylindrical Conformal Microstrip Antenna and Array
Xin Wang Min Zhang Shu-Juan Wang
An antenna and an array with photonic bandgap (PBG) structures, which are cylindrical conformal microstrip antennas, both operating in X-band (10.2 GHz) are proposed. As shown in the simulation, PBG structures could suppress the surface wave propagating on substrate and balance the influence of cylindrical curvature at resonance frequency on antennas. The simulation results indicate that they have a higher gain and better directivity over the conventional antenna without PBG structure. Both of the antenna and the array are designed and manufactured, and the measurement results agree well with the simulations.
PRACTICABILITY ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF PBG STRUCTURES ON CYLINDRICAL CONFORMAL MICROSTRIP ANTENNA AND ARRAY
2011-04-15
PIER
Vol. 115, 477-493, 2011
download: 110
Improved Dual Band-Notched UWB Slot Antenna with Controllable Notched Bandwidths
Chun-Mao Li Liang-Hua Ye
A compact dual band-notched ultra-wideband slot antenna with sharp band-notched characteristics and controllable notched bandwidths is presented. The antenna is formed by a rectangular slot with chamfered corners on a printed circuit board ground plane, a T-shaped stub and two sets of compound band-notched structures. The compound band-notched structures are employed to generate desired lower and upper rejected bands with satisfactory skirt characteristics and sufficient rejection bandwidths. Moreover, the bandwidth of either the lower or upper rejected band can be independently adjusted by changing the size and location of the corresponding band-notched structure. Finally, an UWB slot antenna with two rejected bands at WiMAX/WLAN frequencies is successfully simulated, designed, and measured, showing good impedance matching, stable gain and near omnidirectional radiation patterns.
IMPROVED DUAL BAND-NOTCHED UWB SLOT ANTENNA WITH CONTROLLABLE NOTCHED BANDWIDTHS
2011-04-13
PIER
Vol. 115, 461-475, 2011
download: 110
On the Tapered Optical Fibers with Radially Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Clad
Pankaj Choudhury Wong Keng Soon
The paper presents an analytical investigation of a tapered core optical fiber of which the outermost section is loaded with radially anisotropic liquid crystal. The analyses are dealt with transverse modes supported in the fiber structure followed by the relative distribution of power in the different fiber sections. Preliminary dispersion characteristics of the guide are also illustrated. The results demonstrate that the TE modes transport very large amount of power in the outermost liquid crystal region --- the criteria much useful for fiber optic sensing and field coupling devices.
ON THE TAPERED OPTICAL FIBERS WITH RADIALLY ANISOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTAL CLAD
2011-04-13
PIER
Vol. 115, 441-460, 2011
download: 195
Electromagnetic Losses in Magnetic Shields for Buried High Voltage Cables
Peter Sergeant Selim Koroglu
The electromagnetic losses and shielding efficiency of shields for a buried three phase high voltage cable are studied for several shielding configurations. The shields are U-shaped gutters covered with plates, and the power cables are positioned either in trefoil or in flat configuration. The shielding efficiency and the losses are compared for shields with the same geometry but several shielding materials: aluminium, and two ferromagnetic steel grades. The numerical models are validated with experimental results. From the experiments, it is observed that the average reducing factor of the flux density is about 7 with the flat cable configuration while the average reducing factor of the flux density is about 5 with the trefoil cable configuration. But the power losses in the DX52 shield for trefoil configuration is about 40% lower compared to the flat configuration. In case of trefoil configuration, the losses are 12.41 W/m per meter length in the shield for a current of 750 A. Next to the shield material and the cable configuration, the paper investigates the influence of several parameters on both the shielding efficiency and the losses: the size of the shield, the current amplitude in the cable and the thickness of the shield.
ELECTROMAGNETIC LOSSES IN MAGNETIC SHIELDS FOR BURIED HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES
2011-04-13
PIER
Vol. 115, 423-439, 2011
download: 155
Diplexers Based on Microstrip Line Resonators with Loaded Elements
Jin Shi Jian-Xin Chen Zhi-Hua Bao
In this paper, microstrip line resonators with loaded elements are proposed and studied to design microstrip diplexer. To demonstrate the design ideas, the equivalent circuits of the proposed resonators are built and studied. It is found that the different loads on different positions of the proposed half-wavelength resonator make the resonator have different features, which will easily control the characteristic of the diplexers. And here, resistor, open stub, and shorted stub are used as loaded elements. It is found the resistor loaded on the center of the microstrip line resonator can extremely reduce the unloaded quality factor of even-mode resonant frequency, which can be used to suppress the harmonics of the diplexer. The loaded open stub not only can reduce the size of the diplexer, but also can control the frequency ratio between the fundamental frequency and second harmonic of a resonator, which can increases the frequency ratio between the two passbands of the diplexer. As for the loaded shorted stub, it can enlarge the size of the diplexer. To demonstrate the design ideas, three diplexers are presented. The comparisons between the loaded and unloaded diplexers are given. The experimental results agree well to the theoretical predictions and simulations.
DIPLEXERS BASED ON MICROSTRIP LINE RESONATORS WITH LOADED ELEMENTS
2011-04-12
PIER
Vol. 115, 409-422, 2011
download: 131
Driving a Dielectric Cylindrical Particle with a One Dimensional Airy Beam: a Rigorous Full Wave Solution
Wanli Lu Jun Chen Zhifang Lin Shiyang Liu
We present a rigorous full wave calculation of the optical force on a dielectric cylindrical particle of an arbitrary size under the illumination of one dimensional (1D) Airy beam. The radiation force is written in terms of the cylindrical partial wave expansion coefficients of the non-paraxial 1D Airy beams. Our simulation results demonstrate that an Airy beam can accelerate the microparticles along its parabolic trajectory, while transverse to which the particles are trapped at the center of its main lobe, corroborating the possibility of the long distance particle transport by means of an Airy beam.
DRIVING A DIELECTRIC CYLINDRICAL PARTICLE WITH A ONE DIMENSIONAL AIRY BEAM: A RIGOROUS FULL WAVE SOLUTION
2011-04-12
PIER
Vol. 115, 399-407, 2011
download: 136
Distance Estimation of Concealed Objects with Stereoscopic Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging
Seokwon Yeom Dongsu Lee Hyoung Lee Joungyoung Son Vladimir P. Gushin
Millimeter waves can be used to detect concealed objects because they can penetrate clothing. Therefore, millimeter wave imaging draws increasing attention in security applications for the detection of objects under clothing. In such applications, it is critical to estimate the distances from objects concealed in open spaces. In this paper, we develop a segmentation-based stereo-matching method based on passive millimeter wave imaging to estimate the longitudinal distance from a concealed object. In this method, the concealed object area is segmented and extracted by a k-means algorithm with splitting initialization, which provides an iterative solution for unsupervised learning. The distance from a concealed object is estimated on the basis of discrepancy between corresponding centers of the segmented objects in the image pair. The conventional stereo-matching equation is modi ed according to the scanning properties of the passive millimeter wave imaging system. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately estimate distances from concealed objects.
DISTANCE ESTIMATION OF CONCEALED OBJECTS WITH STEREOSCOPIC PASSIVE MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING
2011-04-08
PIER
Vol. 115, 381-397, 2011
download: 159
Dual-Band Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber with Polarization Insensitivity and Wide Incident Angle
Xun-Jun He Yue Wang Jianmin Wang Tailong Gui Qun Wu
This paper presents the design, simulation and measurement of a dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitivity and wide incident angle. The unit cell of the metamaterial consists of top resonator structures and low metallic ground plane, separated by an isolation material spacer to realize both electric and magnetic resonances. The physical mechanism of dual-band absorption and the sensitivity to the polarization direction and incident direction of the EM wave are theoretically investigated by simulating the x-component and normal component electric field distribution, current distribution on ERRs and metallic ground plane, and distribution of power flow and loss at the resonance frequencies as well as different modes EM waves, based the FDTD calculated method, respectively. The results show that the absorber is not only correctly coupling to the incident electric field and magnetic field, but also can trap the input power into specific positions of the devices and absorb it, besides insensitive to the polarized angle and incident angle. Moreover, the experiment demonstrates that the absorber achieves two strong absorptions of 82.8% and 86.8% near 1.724 and 3.557THz.
DUAL-BAND TERAHERTZ METAMATERIAL ABSORBER WITH POLARIZATION INSENSITIVITY AND WIDE INCIDENT ANGLE
2011-04-08
PIER
Vol. 115, 343-380, 2011
download: 126
Inverse Synthesis of Electromagnetic Materials Using Homogenization Based Topology Optimization
Y. El-Kahlout Gullu Kiziltas
Recent studies on artificial materials demonstrate that substantial improvements in electromagnetic response can be attained by combining different materials subject to desired metrics. However, the perfect material combination is unique and extremely difficult to determine without automated synthesis schemes. In this paper, we develop a versatile approach to design the microstructure of periodic materials with prescribed dielectric and magnetic material tensors. The proposed framework is based on a robust material model and generalized inverse synthesis tool relying on topology optimization. The former is derived using homogenization theory and asymptotic expansion applied to Maxwell equations and can characterize the effects of anisotropy and loss of materials with periodic unit cells of arbitrary geometries and multi-phases much smaller than the wavelength. Resulting Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is solved numerically using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is validated with results in literature. The material model proves to be fast and numerically stable even with complex inclusions. The topology optimization problem is applied for the first time towards designing the unit cell topology of periodic electromagnetic materials from scratch with desired dielectric and magnetic tensors using off-the-shelf materials, i.e., readily available constituents obtained from isotropic ceramic powders. The proposed framework's capability is demonstrated with five design examples. Design with anisotropic permittivity is also fabricated. Results show that the framework is capable of designing, in an automated fashion, non-intuitive material compositions from scratch with desired electromagnetic properties.
INVERSE SYNTHESIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATERIALS USING HOMOGENIZATION BASED TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION
2011-04-07
PIER
Vol. 115, 327-342, 2011
download: 268
FMCW Based MIMO Imaging Radar for Maritime Navigation
Yanchuan Huang Paul Victor Brennan Dave Patrick I. Weller Peters Roberts K. Hughes
The berthing of large ships in inclement weather with frequently poor visibility presents a challenge. To assist with this application, it may be beneficial to utilise standard radar imaging. Whilst this may be achieved using a mechanically-scanned system, reliability, cost and weight issues, coupled with the need to primarily image only a 120º sector on the port and starboard of the ship, make phased array radar an attractive possibility. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) radar, with its ability to enhance the resolution available from a given number of elements, is particularly suited to a short-range application such as this in which there is sufficient time to switch between antenna elements as an alternative to more complex implementations. This paper describes a system of this nature from its basic architecture to development and validation, including some artefacts of the particular topology employed.
FMCW BASED MIMO IMAGING RADAR FOR MARITIME NAVIGATION
2011-04-06
PIER
Vol. 115, 317-326, 2011
download: 145
Magnetic Properties of Metamaterial Composed of Closed Rings
Hongsheng Chen Liang Huang Xiangxiang Cheng Huaping Wang
The magnetic properties of the metamaterial composed of both periodic and aperiodic closed rings are studied. Experimental results validate that metamaterials with 0 < μ < 1 can be non-dispersive in a wide frequency range. The magnetic properties are insensitive to disorders of the closed rings, e.g., the position disorders and the size disorders. The related causality issue is also discussed.
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF METAMATERIAL COMPOSED OF CLOSED RINGS
2011-04-05
PIER
Vol. 115, 303-315, 2011
download: 368
Extracting Coupling Matrix and Unloaded Q from Scattering Parameters of Lossy Filters
Rui Wang Jun Xu
This paper presents a method for extracting the coupling matrix and the unloaded Q from the measured (or electromagnetic simulated) S-parameters of a narrow band cross-coupled resonator bandpass filter with losses. The Cauchy method is applied to determine the characteristic polynomials of the S-parameters of a filter in the normalized low-pass frequency domain. A five-parameter optimization method is proposed to obtain the unloaded Q and remove the phase shift of the measured S-parameters, which is caused by the phase loading and the transmission lines at the input/output ports of a filter. Once the characteristic polynomials of the S-parameters with the phase shift removed have been determined, the coupling matrix of a filter with a given topology can be extracted using well established techniques. Two application examples are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed method.
EXTRACTING COUPLING MATRIX AND UNLOADED Q FROM SCATTERING PARAMETERS OF LOSSY FILTERS
2011-04-01
PIER
Vol. 115, 289-301, 2011
download: 438
Design of a Microstrip Balanced Mixer for Satellite Communication
Jian Guo Zhengbin Xu Cheng Qian Wen-Bin Dou
The design and measured results of a compact, low cost, low conversion loss microstrip single balanced Schottky diodes mixer is proposed. This mixer is designed for Ka-band satellite transponder simulator to convert the 30 GHz radio-frequency (RF) signal down to the 20 GHz intermediate-frequency (IF) signal with 9.8 GHz local oscillator (LO) frequency. This design takes full advantage of the frequency relationship of the RF, IF and LO, which is 3 : 2 : 1. A microstrip rat-race ring is designed at the LO frequency, which also functions as a 180-degree hybrid coupler at the RF frequency by its intrinsic multi-band characteristic. The amplitude and phase balance at both LO and RF frequency are analyzed, which guarantee the state-of-art performance of this single balanced mixer. The multi-function open/short stubs and a lowpass filter (LPF) with bonding wires across the rat-race ring are optimized to realize this low conversion loss mixer. The measured results show that the conversion loss is less than 9 dB at the IF frequency from 20.0 to 21.6 GHz, and the power of the second harmonic of LO is -45dBm with +6.5dBm LO drive power. The 3rd order inter-modulation products (IMD3) could be lower than -50 dBc with LO power higher than +7.8dBm at the input RF power of -15 dBm.
DESIGN OF A MICROSTRIP BALANCED MIXER FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
2011-04-01
PIER
Vol. 115, 259-287, 2011
download: 115
Characteristic Basis Functions of the Energy Radiation Pattern of a Sparse True Time Delay Array
Amir Shlivinski
A set of characteristic basis functions of the energy radiation pattern for a true-time-delay array of equi-spaced elements radiating a pulsed/transient wave-field was derived. This set is determined by the array layout and by the set of excitation waveforms that can be used to expand the actual excitation pulse. It is established that the characteristic basis function set spans the mapping of the square amplitudes of the discrete Fourier transform of the excitation coefficients to the energy radiation pattern. This mapping is further used to analyze array performance and re-examine the term array sparsity. Additional use of this set can be found in synthesizing an array radiation pattern to meet prescribed requirements.
CHARACTERISTIC BASIS FUNCTIONS OF THE ENERGY RADIATION PATTERN OF A SPARSE TRUE TIME DELAY ARRAY
2011-04-01
PIER
Vol. 115, 243-257, 2011
download: 180
Negative Refraction in an Anisotropic Metamaterial with a Rotation Angle Between the Principal Axis and the Planar Interface
Song-Hua Liu Li-Xin Guo
The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves at the interface between an isotropic regular medium and an anisotropic metamaterial for arbitrary orientation of principal axis are investigated. In terms of the different sign combinations of the tensor components along principal axes, the anisotropic media are divided into four classes. The existence conditions of negative refraction are discussed in different cases, indicating that the conditions for the existence of negative refraction are closely dependent on the principal components and the rotation angle. Furthermore, the influence of the rotation of the principal axes on the incident angle region is analyzed for each case, and the optimal material parameters are attained for the maximum area of the incident angle region of negative refraction occurrence.
NEGATIVE REFRACTION IN AN ANISOTROPIC METAMATERIAL WITH A ROTATION ANGLE BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL AXIS AND THE PLANAR INTERFACE
2011-03-31
PIER
Vol. 115, 223-242, 2011
download: 165
Electrothermal Effects in High Density through Silicon via (Tsv) Arrays
Wen-Sheng Zhao Xiao-Peng Wang Wen-Yan Yin
Electrothermal effects in various through silicon via (TSV) arrays are investigated in this paper. An equivalent lumped-element circuit model of a TSV pair is derived. The temperature-dependent TSV capacitance, silicon substrate capacitance and conductance are examined for low-, medium-, and high-resistivity silicon substrates, respectively. The partial-element equivalent-circuit (PEEC) method is employed for calculating per-unit-length (p.u.l.) resistance, inductance, insertion loss and characteristic impedances of copper and polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) TSV arrays, and their frequency- and temperature-dependent characteristics are treated rigorously. The modified time-domain finite-element method (TD-FEM), in the presence of a set of periodic differential-mode voltage pulses, is also employed for studying transient electrothermal responses of 4- and 5-TSV arrays made of different materials, with their maximum temperatures and thermal crosstalk characterized thoroughly.
ELECTROTHERMAL EFFECTS IN HIGH DENSITY THROUGH SILICON VIA (TSV) ARRAYS
2011-03-30
PIER
Vol. 115, 207-221, 2011
download: 223
Symmetric and Asymmetric Double Langmuir Probes Characterization of Radio Frequency Inductivley Coupled Nitrogen Plasma
Muhammad Yasin Naz Abdul Ghaffar N. U. Rehman Muhammad Azam Shazia Shukrullah A. Qayyum Muhammad Zakaullah
The symmetric and asymmetric double Langmuir probe systems with their necessary driving circuits are developed for characterization of low pressure inductively coupled nitrogen plasma, generated and sustained with 13.56 MHz RF source and an automatic impedance matching network. First of all the plasma parameters such as ion saturation current, electron temperature and electron number density are determined with symmetric double probe system at different input RF powers, filling gas pressures and radial distance from the plasma chamber wall. Then the electron temperature and electron energy probability function are determined with asymmetric double probe system at the centre of the discharge plasma chamber by changing the filling gas pressure and input RF power. It is observed that the electron temperature and electron number density increase with the increase in input RF power and radial distance but decreases with the increase in filling gas pressure. The electron energy probability function determined with asymmetric probe system evidently deviates from the Maxwellian, particularly at low filling gas pressures.
SYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC DOUBLE LANGMUIR PROBES CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY INDUCTIVLEY COUPLED NITROGEN PLASMA
2011-03-29
PIER
Vol. 115, 191-206, 2011
download: 117
A Novel Moving Target Detection Approach for Dual-Channel SAR System
Bin Tian Dai-Yin Zhu Zhao-Da Zhu
A novel approach to moving target detection is proposed for dual-channel SAR system. This approach is on the basis of eigen-decomposition of the sample covariance matrix and examines the statistic of the second eigenvalue and the Along-Track Interferometric (ATI) phase for ground moving target indication. Based on this statistic, a new Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector can be designed to solve the problem of GMTI. To detect slow moving targets more accurately, the second eigenvalue and the ATI phase pre-thresholds are implemented before a CFAR detector. Experimental results on measured SAR data are presented to demonstrate that this novel detector has wider range of detection velocity and lower false alarm probability.
A NOVEL MOVING TARGET DETECTION APPROACH FOR DUAL-CHANNEL SAR SYSTEM
2011-03-28
PIER
Vol. 115, 173-189, 2011
download: 120
Application of Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm to Pattern Synthesis of Antenna Arrays
Wei-Bo Wang Quanyuan Feng Dong Liu
To deal with pattern synthesis of antenna arrays, a chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) is presented to avoid the premature convergence. By fusing with the ergodic and stochastic chaos, the novel algorithm explores the global optimum with the comprehensive learning strategy. The chaotic searching region can be adjusted adaptively. To evaluate the performance of CPSO, several representative benchmark functions are minimized using various optimization algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed approach improves the performance of the algorithm significantly, in terms of both the convergence speed and exploration ability. Moreover, CPSO was applied to array synthesis examples, including the equally spaced linear array, unequally spaced linear array and conformal array, compared with other optimization methods. Experimental results show its high performance in the pattern synthesis with low side lobe, multi-nulls and shaped beam.
APPLICATION OF CHAOTIC PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO PATTERN SYNTHESIS OF ANTENNA ARRAYS