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2013-01-11
PIER
Vol. 135, 759-771, 2013
download: 110
Directional Coupler with Good Restraint Outside the Passband and Its Frequency-Agile Application
Yu Jian Cheng Lei Wang Jie Wu Yong Fan
In this paper, a directional coupler incorporating the bandpass frequency response characteristic is proposed and characterized. This structure is modified from a conventional branch-line coupler. Two wide open-ended coupled lines are used instead of microstrip branch lines. As such, good restraint performance outside the passband can be achieved. The even-odd mode technique is employed to analyze and synthesize such a coupler. After that, frequency tuning is achieved by modifying the electrical length of the open-ended coupled lines with varactors. Measured results validate the correctness of our theory and design.
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER WITH GOOD RESTRAINT OUTSIDE THE PASSBAND AND ITS FREQUENCY-AGILE APPLICATION
2013-01-11
PIER
Vol. 135, 747-758, 2013
download: 177
Study on an s-Band Rectenna Array for Wireless Microwave Power Transmission
Wen Huang Biao Zhang Xing Chen Ka-Ma Huang Chang-Jun Liu
The microwave power transmission is an approach for wireless power transmission. As an important component of a microwave wireless power transmission systems, microwave rectennais widely studied. A rectenna based on a microstrip dipole antennas and a microwave rectifier with high conversion efficiencywere designed at 2.45 GHz.The dipole antenna achieved a gain of 5.2 dBi, a return loss greater than 10 dB, and a bandwidth of 20%. The microwave to DC (MW-DC) conversion efficiency of the rectifier was measured as 83% with 20 dBm input power and 600 Ω load. There are 72 rectennasto form an array with an area of 50 cm by 50 cm. The measured results show that the arrangement of the rectenna connection is an effective way to improvethe total conversion efficiency,when the microwave power distributionis not uniform on rectenna array. The experimental results show that the highest microwave power transmission efficiency reaches 67.6%.
STUDY ON AN S-BAND RECTENNA ARRAY FOR WIRELESS MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION
2013-01-10
PIER
Vol. 135, 735-745, 2013
download: 131
Plane Wave Beam Produced by an Exclusive Medium
Jingbo Sun Qian Zhao Bo Li Ji Zhou
In this work, a special indefinite medium is used to produce a plane wave beam due to its linear type equifrequency contour resulted by the zero parameter in the permeability tenser. Only one transmitting mode exists in such a medium, composing the plane wave beam propagating along the zero parameter direction. Parameters along the field vectors of the wave are 1, enabling the wave propagation in the medium like in the air, which is totally different from the zero-index medium. A split ring resonator (SRR)-arrays based metamaterial is used to realize such a medium and produce an approximate plane wave beam experimentally. This idea proposes a feasible way to generate a near field plane wave beam with certain beamwidth, which can also be applied in cylindrical coordination or 3D cases.
PLANE WAVE BEAM PRODUCED BY AN EXCLUSIVE MEDIUM
2013-01-10
PIER
Vol. 135, 713-734, 2013
download: 133
High-Order Unconditionally-Stable Four-Step Adi-FDTD Methods and Numerical Analysis
Yong-Dan Kong Qing-Xin Chu Rong-Lin Li
High-order unconditionally-stable three-dimensional (3-D) four-step alternating direction implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) methods are presented. Based on the exponential evolution operator (EEO), the Maxwell's equations in a matrix form can be split into four sub-procedures. Accordingly, the time step is divided into four sub-steps. In addition, high-order central finite-difference operators based on the Taylor central finite-difference method are used to approximate the spatial differential operators first, and then the uniform formulation of the proposed high-order schemes is generalized. Subsequently, the analysis shows that all the proposed high-order methods are unconditionally stable. The generalized form of the dispersion relations of the proposed high-order methods is carried out. Finally, in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methods, numerical experiments are presented. Furthermore, the effects of the order of schemes, the propagation angle, the time step, and the mesh size on the dispersion are illustrated through numerical results. Specifically, the normalized numerical phase velocity error (NNPVE) and the maximum NNPVE of the proposed schemes are lower than that of the traditional ADI-FDTD method.
HIGH-ORDER UNCONDITIONALLY-STABLE FOUR-STEP ADI-FDTD METHODS AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
2013-01-08
PIER
Vol. 135, 695-712, 2013
download: 119
Scattering of an Axial Gaussian Beam by a Conducting Spheroid with Non-Confocal Chiral Coating
Huayong Zhang Yufa Sun Tongqing Liao Rongqing Hui
Within the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory framework, an analytic solution to the scattering by a conducting spheroid with non-confocal chiral coating, for incidence of an axial Gaussian beam, is presented. To overcome the difficulty of non-confocal boundary conditions, a theoretical procedure is developed by virtue of a transformation between the spherical and spheroidal vector wave functions. Numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are shown for chiral-coated conducting spheroids.
SCATTERING OF AN AXIAL GAUSSIAN BEAM BY A CONDUCTING SPHEROID WITH NON-CONFOCAL CHIRAL COATING
2013-01-08
PIER
Vol. 135, 677-694, 2013
download: 116
Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields Due to Inclined Lightning Channel in Presence of Ground Reflection
Mahdi Izadi Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir Maryam Hajikhani
In this paper, analytical field expressions are proposed to determine the electromagnetic fields due to an inclined lightning channel in the presence of a ground reflection at the striking point. The proposed method can support different current functions and models directly in the time domain without the need to apply any extra conversions. A set of measured electromagnetic fields associated with an inclined lightning channel from a triggered lightning experiment is used to evaluate the proposed field expressions. The results indicate that the peak of the electromagnetic fields is dependent on the channel angle, the observation point angle as well as the value of the ground reflection factor due to the difference between channel and ground impedances. Likewise, the effect of the channel parameters and the ground reflection on the values of the electromagnetic fields is considered and the results are discussed accordingly.
EVALUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO INCLINED LIGHTNING CHANNEL IN PRESENCE OF GROUND REFLECTION
2013-01-07
PIER
Vol. 135, 657-675, 2013
download: 114
Hybrid Technique for the Analysis of Scattering from Periodic Structures Composed of Irregular Objects
Adam Kusiek Rafal Lech Jerzy Mazur
In the paper, the analysis of electromagnetic wave scattering from multilayered frequency selective surfaces is presented. The surface is composed of periodically arranged posts with irregular shapes. The multimodal scattering matrix of such structure is derived and the transmission and reflection characteristic for the structure with arbitrary plane wave illumination are calculated. The exact full-wave theory based on the hybrid approach employing mode-matching method and finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) technique is applied to develop an efficient theory to analyze such structures. The validity and accuracy of the approach are verified by comparing the results with those obtained from alternative methods and own measurements of manufactured periodic structures.
HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SCATTERING FROM PERIODIC STRUCTURES COMPOSED OF IRREGULAR OBJECTS
2013-01-04
PIER
Vol. 135, 641-656, 2013
download: 128
Rotationally Symmetric Coupled-Lines Bandpass Filter with Two Transmission Zeros
Sai Wai Wong Kai Wang Zhi-Ning Chen Qing-Xin Chu
A rotationally symmetric short-circuited stub-loaded structure is proposed to design a microstrip-line bandpass filter with two transmission zeros near the lower and upper cut-off frequency edges of operating millimeter-wave bands. Furthermore, interdigital coupled-lines and additional resonators are integrated into the proposed rotationally symmetric bandpass filter to improve the out-of-band rejection. as design examples, the in-band and out-of-band performances of two filter prototypes using single layer microstrip-lines are designed and experimentally examined. the measured results show that the filter without any interdigital coupled-lines achieves a passband insertion loss of 0.97 dB at 40 GHz and out-of-band rejection of larger than 23 dB, while the filter with the interdigital coupled-lines realizes the suppressions in lower and upper-bands of, respectively, larger than 30 dB and 19 dB for the overall insertion loss of 2.1 dB at 40 GHz.
ROTATIONALLY SYMMETRIC COUPLED-LINES BANDPASS FILTER WITH TWO TRANSMISSION ZEROS
2013-01-03
PIER
Vol. 135, 627-639, 2013
download: 115
Temporal Modulation of Light Intensity via 1D Time-Variant Photonic Crystal Structure
Zehui Yong Zefeng Chen Yihang Chen Chi Wah Leung Helen Lai Wa Chan Bo Li Yu Wang
In this work, we show that light intensity modulation can be realized in the system of one-dimensional time-variant photonic crystals. Different from conventional light modulators, the functioning of the proposed structure emphasizes on its spatial/temporal structures instead of inherent material properties. Additionally, our system can perform inherent light modulation without introducing external stimuli, thus avoiding direct contacts with electrodes (or other modulation sources), which would be preferable in certain environments. The influences of parameters such as light frequency, structure dimensions, and refractive index contrasts on the modulation performance of the time-variant photonic crystal were investigated by numerical simulations. The results provide a new strategy for light modulation, which may add functionalities in optical communication, integrated-optics or display technologies.
TEMPORAL MODULATION OF LIGHT INTENSITY VIA 1D TIME-VARIANT PHOTONIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
2013-01-02
PIER
Vol. 135, 601-625, 2013
download: 113
Impact of Electromagnetic Losses in Closed Two-Component Magnetic Shields on the Ampacity of Underground Power Cables
Juan Carlos del Pino-Lopez Pedro Cruz-Romero Luis Serrano-Iribarnegaray
In this paper two typical arrangements of underground single-core high voltage three-phase power cables (flat and trefoil protected by PVC pipes) inside a closed shield of three different materials (low-carbon steel, non-oriented grain steel and aluminium) are analysed. The shield has two components: a U-shaped base and a flat plate (cover) located on top of the base. Whereas most of previous papers on this subject only dealt with the degree of mitigation obtained with each material, this paper, in addition to also addressing this issue, mainly focusses on the effect that electromagnetic losses induced in the shield have on the ampacity of the cable and the cost involved (material and losses). To obtain the numerical results, a high number of simulations by a well-known commercial finite element method software (COMSOL Multiphysics) have been performed. The results obtained in the numerous cases analysed are widely commented and the solutions that enable an important mitigation with no current derating and at a comparatively low cost are highlighted.
IMPACT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC LOSSES IN CLOSED TWO-COMPONENT MAGNETIC SHIELDS ON THE AMPACITY OF UNDERGROUND POWER CABLES
2013-01-02
PIER
Vol. 135, 583-599, 2013
download: 151
A Compressive Sensing Approach for Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radiometers
Shiyong Li Xi Zhou Bailing Ren Hou-Jun Sun Xin Lv
The aperture synthesis technology represents a promising new approach to microwave radiometers for high-resolution observations of the Earth from geostationary orbit. However, the future application of the new technology may be limited by its large number of antennas, receivers, and correlators. In order to reduce significantly the complexity of the on-board hardware requirements, a novel method based on the recently developed theory of compressive sensing (CS) is proposed in this paper. Due to the fact that the brightness temperature distributions of the Earth have a sparse representation in some proper transform domain-for example, in terms of spatial finite-differences or their wavelet coefficients, we use the CS approach to significantly undersample the visibility function. Thus the number of antennas, receivers, and correlators can be further reduced than those based on the traditional methods that obey the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem. The reconstruction is performed by minimizing the l1 norm of a transformed image. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by numerical simulations using the image corresponding to AMSU-A over the Pacific.
A COMPRESSIVE SENSING APPROACH FOR SYNTHETIC APERTURE IMAGING RADIOMETERS
2013-01-02
PIER
Vol. 135, 563-581, 2013
download: 126
Wide Slot Loop Antenna with Distance-Adjustable Back-Reflector for Multiple Narrowband Antennas Replacement
Peng Fei Yihong Qi Yong-Chang Jiao
In this paper, a wide slot loop antenna with an adjustable back-reflector is introduced. Five working statuses are defined by simply adjusting the distances between the radiator and the reflector. Measured results show the total available operating band with better than 10 dB return loss ranges from 0.84 GHz to 3.04 GHz (113.4%). The radiation properties of the array are tested in an anechoic chamber. Stable unidirectional radiations with more than 8.3 dB gains are observed in the working band. Apart from that, the straightforward two-portion arrangement of the design provides cost-effective solution for mass production. All these features make the antenna an appropriate substitute for multiple narrowband antennas.
WIDE SLOT LOOP ANTENNA WITH DISTANCE-ADJUSTABLE BACK-REFLECTOR FOR MULTIPLE NARROWBAND ANTENNAS REPLACEMENT
2013-01-02
PIER
Vol. 135, 527-562, 2013
download: 134
Effect of Threshold Value on the Performance of Natural Frequency-Based Radar Target Recognition
Sung-Woo Cho Joon-Ho Lee
In this paper, the performance analysis of the natural frequency-based radar target recognition in the time domain is considered. We investigate the dependence of the probability of correct classification on a specific threshold value, and determine the optimum threshold value for two targets, and the sub-optimal threshold for multiple targets to maximize the probability of correct classification. Based on the probability density function (PDF) of some quantity consisting of the projections of the late time response onto the column spaces of the matrices constructed using the natural frequencies of the specific targets, we propose how to determine an optimum threshold in the sense that the probability of correct classification of two targets is maximized. By extending the scheme for two targets, we show how to determine a threshold value close to the optimal threshold for multiple targets. The scheme is validated by comparing the performance using the analytic method with that using the Monte-Carlo simulation.
EFFECT OF THRESHOLD VALUE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NATURAL FREQUENCY-BASED RADAR TARGET RECOGNITION
2012-12-28
PIER
Vol. 135, 515-525, 2013
download: 114
Design of Compact Dual-Band Filter in Multilayer LTCC with Cross Coupling
Chunxia Zhou Yong-Xin Guo Lei Wang Wen Wu
A very compact low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) dual-band filter is designed based on the proposed novel cross-coupling structure in this paper. A six-pole dual-band filter with four transmission zeros is synthesized using an analytical procedure. By incorporating the proposed novel cross-coupling structure and analyzing the coupling characteristic, the dual-band filter is realized with canonical topology in multilayer LTCC. It is demonstrated by the simulation and experiment that the proposed dual-band filter has both compact size and good selectivity.
DESIGN OF COMPACT DUAL-BAND FILTER IN MULTILAYER LTCC WITH CROSS COUPLING
2012-12-26
PIER
Vol. 135, 481-513, 2013
download: 120
An Improved Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm Based on Curved Trajectory in Geosynchronous SAR
Cheng Hu Teng Long Ye Tian
Geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) has the characteristics of long aperture time and large imaging area. Therefore, the conventional imaging algorithm in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SAR loses effect. In this paper, based on curved trajectory model under an ideal acquisition and not considering some acquisition perturbations (atmosphere, orbital deviations), an accurate two-dimensional frequency spectrum is analytically obtained via series reversion principle and high order Taylor expansion. Then, an improved Nonlinear Chirp Scaling (NCS) algorithm is proposed in GEO SAR, which includes novel range migration correction factor, coupling phase compensation factor, NCS factor and azimuth compression function. Finally, the correctness of the proposed NCS algorithm is verified via imaging results of point array targets and area targets.
AN IMPROVED NONLINEAR CHIRP SCALING ALGORITHM BASED ON CURVED TRAJECTORY IN GEOSYNCHRONOUS SAR
2012-12-26
PIER
Vol. 135, 465-480, 2013
download: 121
Using Wave-Coefficients as Feature Vectors to Identify Aerospace Targets
Xiao-Min Jiang Shouqing Jia Mingyao Xia Chi Hou Chan
An original target identification method using Wave-Coefficients (WCs) as feature vector is proposed. The scattering fields of arbitrary shaped targets are expressed as a sum of spherical waves and the distinctive coefficients are exploited as the target feature. Decision rule based on correlation coefficient is established, and some analyses on the properties of the WCs are conducted. Numerical simulations of four targets are carried out and the recognition performances without and with noise are provided and discussed.
USING WAVE-COEFFICIENTS AS FEATURE VECTORS TO IDENTIFY AEROSPACE TARGETS
2012-12-26
PIER
Vol. 135, 451-464, 2013
download: 129
Filter Tuning Based on Linear Decomposition of Scattering Characteristics
Tomasz Kacmajor Jerzy Julian Michalski
This paper proposes a microwave filter post-production tuning based on an optimization process which finds the vector of deviations of tuning elements that should be applied to tune the filter. To build the system, the coarse set of scattering parameters is collected in such a way that every tuning element is detuned while other elements remain in their proper positions. In the concept, it is assumed that the relation between the positions of tuning elements and filter scattering characteristics can be modelled by the sum of one argument polynomial functions. Each polynomial function depends on the value of only one tuning element. Therefore, the measured filter characteristics can be linearly decomposed to characteristics from the collected coarse set and corresponding tuning element deviations can be found. This is done by way of optimization process. The presented numerical and physical experiments on the 7th order cross-coupled, bandpass filter have verified our approach.
FILTER TUNING BASED ON LINEAR DECOMPOSITION OF SCATTERING CHARACTERISTICS
2012-12-26
PIER
Vol. 135, 435-449, 2013
download: 117
New Compact Triple-Mode Resonator Filter with Embedded Inductive and Capacitive Cross Coupling
Jen-Tsai Kuo Tsu-Wei Lin Shyh-Jong Chung
Two new compact planar triple-mode resonators embedded with inductive or capacitive cross coupling are proposed for bandpass filter design. Both resonators consist of a shorted half-wave ring. In the first resonator, two shorted half-wave sections with inductive coupling are connected to the shorted via of the ring. In the second, two quarter-wave sections with capacitive coupling are connected. The inductive coupling is realized by a short grounded high-impedance segment, and the capacitive coupling is implemented by an interdigital capacitor. When both the inductive and capacitive coupling coefficients are properly realized, a transmission zero can be created at designated position in either upper or lower stopband. The shorted ring is accommodated inside the area of the other two resonance sections so that a compact area can be achieved. As compared with a conventional dual-mode ring resonator filter, the proposed resonators use only 46.7% and 22.5% in area. Two triple-mode resonator bandpass filters are fabricated and measured to validate the ideas. Measurement results have good agreement with the simulation responses.
NEW COMPACT TRIPLE-MODE RESONATOR FILTER WITH EMBEDDED INDUCTIVE AND CAPACITIVE CROSS COUPLING
2012-12-26
PIER
Vol. 135, 411-433, 2013
download: 96
Optimization of the E-Plane Loaded Rectangular Waveguide for Low-Loss Propagation
Daniel Sanchez-Escuderos Miguel Ferrando-Bataller Jose I. Herranz Mariano Baquero-Escudero
The insertion of vertical slabs in a metallic rectangular waveguide distorts the power distribution of the waveguide, producing new modes and modifying the existing ones. The resulting waveguide, known as E-plane loaded rectangular waveguide, is studied in this paper, focusing the attention on the TE-type modes in a symmetrical case. A quasi-TE10 is found which may confine the energy in the central air region by suitably choosing the dielectric slabs' dimensions. An algorithm to optimize these dimensions is proposed in order to maximize the confinement of power in the air region and minimize the attenuation of the mode. This minimization is specially important at high frequencies, where the ohmic losses and the dielectric absorption become extremely high. This paper includes an example at THz frequencies and presents the design of several devices using the E-plane loaded rectangular waveguide.
OPTIMIZATION OF THE E-PLANE LOADED RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE FOR LOW-LOSS PROPAGATION
2012-12-26
PIER
Vol. 135, 391-410, 2013
download: 120
WIP Study of Multiple Metallic Obstacle Scattering
Nicolae Lucanu Ion Bogdan Henri Baudrand
The Wave Iterative Process is applied and validated for the study of the scattering of a plane wave by a multiple metallic dipole diffraction structure. The case of a single metallic dipole is treated, at first in normal incidence, than arbitrarily placed with respect to the incident wave. A double dipole scattering structure is studied, mutual influence being taken into account. The diffraction system is further enlarged to 5 randomly placed dipoles, the results issued from the WIP study being compared with those given by the Moments Method. Finally, the possibility of taking into account a very large number of dipoles is examined, by introducing an equivalent dipole distribution. The influence of this approximation on the WIP precision is presented.
WIP STUDY OF MULTIPLE METALLIC OBSTACLE SCATTERING