Comparison of the Two-Scale and Three-Scale Models for Bistatic Electromagnetic Scattering from Ocean Surfaces
With rapid development of satellite technology in monitoring the ocean, a good understanding of the physical processes involved in the electromagnetic ocean-surface interaction is required. The composite surface models are usually applied in the analysis of the interaction, hence a systematical check of their region of validity is desirable. Based on a generalized minimal residual procedure which is right preconditioned (GMRES-RP) that we have recently developed which has demonstrated the desirable properties of a numerical algorithm: robust and efficient, in this paper, for bistatic scattering from one dimensional ocean surfaces, we carry out a systematic assessment of the performance of the popular two-scale model and the advanced three-scale model under different conditions of ocean surface wind speeds, polarizations, frequencies, and incidence angles. It is found that the two-scale model in general captures the bistatic scattering pattern, yet the accuracy of geometrical optics (GO) for the large scale wave brings considerable impact on the overall accuracy. If the evaluation of the contribution of the large scale wave is instead using direct numerical integration for the corresponding Kirchhoff integral, impressive improvements are frequently observed, especially at low frequency (L and C bands) and low wind speed (3 m/s). But care should be taken when apply two-scale method with numerical integration, since there are cases where visible discrepancy with method of moment (MoM) are observed. On the other hand, the three-scale model is found in very good agreement with MoM across the considered ocean surface wind speeds, polarizations, frequencies, and incidence angles, hence represents a much advanced model over the two-scale model.