A hybridization approach to integrate simulation codes based on high and low frequency techniques is developed in this paper. This work allows the antenna design to be performed directly in the presence of the complex and large structures.Since the sizes of the complex structures can be extremely large electrically, and the antenna structure itself can be significantly complicated, such problems can not be resolved with a single technique alone.While low frequency techniques are generally applied for antenna design problems where small scale interactions are involved, high frequency techniques are adopted for the prediction of propagation effects inside the complex structures.The proposed hybridization approach provides a seamless integration of low and high frequency techniques that combines the advantages of both techniques in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Numerical example is presented to demonstrate the utilization of the proposed approach.
"Hybridization of Simulation Codes Based on Numerical High and Low Frequency Techniques for the Efficient Antenna Design in the Presence of Electrically Large and Complex Structures," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 78, 173-187, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER07091104
1. Chen, M., X.-W. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and C.-H. Liang, "Analysis of antenna around NURBS surface With iterative MOM-PO technique," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 12, 1667-1680, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306779292372
2. Ding, W., Y.Zhang, P.Y.Zhu, and C.H.Liang, "Study on electromagnetic problems involving combinations of arbitrarily oriented thin-wire antennas and inhomogeneous dielectric objects with a hybrid MOM-FDTD method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 11, 1519-1533, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306779274255
3. Zhang, Y.-I. and E.-P. Li, "Scattering of three-dimensional chiral objects above a perfect conducting plane by hybrid finite element method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 11, 1535-1546, 2005. doi:10.1163/156939305775701813
4. Volakis, J.L., A.Chatterjee, and L.C.Kemp el, Finite Element Method for Electromagnetics: Antennas, Microwave Circuits, and Scattering Applications, 368, IEEE Press and Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.
5. Taflove, A., "Application of the finite-difference time-domain method to sinusoidal steady state electromagnetic penetration problems," Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 22, 191-202, 1980. doi:10.1109/TEMC.1980.303879
6. Harrington, F. F., Computation byMoment Methods, Macmillan, New York, 1968.
7. Kouyoumjian, R.G.and P.H.P athak, "A uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for an edge in a perfectly conducting surface," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 62, No. 11, 1448-1461, 1974.
8. Ufimtsev, P. Y., Method of Edge Waves in the Physical Theory of Diffraction, Wiley-IEEE Press, February 16, 2007.
9. Tiberio, R., S.Maci, and A.T occafondi, "An incremental theory of diffraction: electromagnetic formulation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 43, No. 1, 87-96, 1995. doi:10.1109/8.366356
10. Chen, M., Y.Zhang, and C.H.Liang, "Calculation of the field distribution near electrically large NURBS surfaces with physical-optics method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 11, 1511-1524, 2005. doi:10.1163/156939305775701886
11. Zhang, P.F.and S.X.Gong, "Improvement on the forwardbackward iterative physical optics algorithm applied to computing the RCS of large open-ended cavities," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 21, 457-469, 2007. doi:10.1163/156939307779367297
12. Attiya, A.M.and E.El-Diw any, "A time domain incremental theory of diffraction: Scattering of electromagnetic pulsed plane waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 44, 81-101, 2004. doi:10.2528/PIER03032001
13. Attiya, A.M.and E.El-Diw any, "Scattering of X-waves from a circular disk using a time domain incremental theory of diffraction," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 44, 103-129, 2004. doi:10.2528/PIER03032002
14. Attiya, A.M.and E.El-Diw any, "Diffraction of a Transverse Electric (TE) X-wave by conducting objects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 38167-198, 38167-198, 2002.
15. Chen, X.J.and X.W.Shi, "Backscattering of electrically large perfect conducting targets modeled by NURBS surfaces in halfspace," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77215-224, 77215-224, 2007.
16. Ruppin, R., "Scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a perfect electromagnetic conductor cylinder," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 13, 1853-1860, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306779292219
17. Thiele, G.A.and T.H.Newhouse, "A hybrid technique for combining moment methods with the geometrical theory of diffraction," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. AP-23, No. 1, 1975.
18. Burnside, W., C. Yu, and R. Marhefka, "A technique to combine the geometrical theory of diffraction and the moment method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 23, No. 7, 551-558, 1975. doi:10.1109/TAP.1975.1141117
20. Davidson, D. B., I. P. Theron, U. Jakobus, F. M. Landstorfer, F. J. C. Meyer, J.Mostert, and J. J. Tonder, "Recent progress on the antenna simulation program FEKO," Communications and Signal Processing, 7-8, 1998.
21. Stupfel, B. and M. Mognot, "A domain decomposition method for the vector wave equation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 5, 653-660, 2000. doi:10.1109/8.855483
22. NEC-BSC version 4.2 User's Manual, The Ohio State University, The Ohio State University, June 2000., 2000.
23. CST Studio Suite 2006B User's Manual, CST Computation Simulation Technology, CST Computation Simulation Technology, 2006., 2006.
24. Clemens, M., S.Feigh, and T.Weiland, "Geometric multigrid algorithms using the conformal finite integration technique," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1065-1068, 2004. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2004.825189
25. Garcia-Pino, A., F.Obelleiro, and J.L.Ro driguez, "Scattering from conducting open cavities by generalized ray expansion (GRE)," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 7, 989-992, 1993. doi:10.1109/8.237634