Radiation characteristics of shipborne antennas above lossy half-space are studied using the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). The near terms in the MLFMA are evaluated by using the rigorous half-space dyadic Green's function, computed via the method of complex images. The far MLFMA interactions employ an approximate dyadic Green's function via a direct-radiation term plus a single real image, with the image amplitude characterized by the polarization-dependent Fresnel reflection coefficient. Finally, radiation patterns of an ultra-shortwave antenna mounted on a realistic 3-D ship over seawater are presented and compared with a rigorous method-ofmoments (MoM) solution.
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