With the advancement of wireless networks and cloud computing, people are becoming increasingly surrounded by a variety of displays - rich electronic devices: TV, Phone, Pad, Notebook and other portable or wearable devices. These electronic products put high demands on the quality of the visual interface. Paper-like displays are reflective and do not require a backlight. They have received much attention after electrophoretic-based electronic paper displays were commercialized in 2004. Paper-like displays combine excellent reading experience with ultra-low power consumption. In particular, their outdoor readability is superior to transmissive liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). In this paper, we give an overview onvarious paper-like display technologies with emphasis of the status and future development of electrophoretic display and electro-fluidic display principles. We focus on both technologies because electrophoretic displays have been commercialized successfully, and electro-fluidic display has high potential to deliver video and full color.
3. Comiskey, B., J. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays," Nature, Vol. 394, No. 6690, 253-255, 1998.
4. Inoue, S., H. Kawai, S. Kanbe, T. Saeki, and T. Shimoda, "High-resolution microencapsulated electrophoretic display (EPD) driven by poly-Si TFTs with four-level grayscale," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 49, No. 9, 1532-1539, 2002.
5. Harrigal, C., et al., "A backplane fabricated by evaporation printing for the production of a cost-competitive electrophoretic e-paper electronic shelf label display," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 43, No. 1, 702-703, Jun. 2012.
6. Lee, J. K., S. S. Kim, Y. I. Park, C. D. Kim, and Y. K. Hwang, "In-cell adaptive touch technology for a flexible e-paper display," Solid-state Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 1, 159-162, 2011.
7. Sakurai, R., S. Ohno, S. I. Kita, Y. Masuda, and R. Hattori, "Color and flexible electronic paper display using QR-LPD technology," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1922-1925, Wiley Online Library, 2006.
8. Wilson, R., "Displaying digital information on paper-like devices," A Technology and Standards Watch Report, 03-01, Joint Information Systems Committee, 2003.
9. Yang, D. K., J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, "Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid crystals," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 76, No. 2, 1331-1333, 1994.
10. Miles, M. W., "A new reflective FPD technology using interferometric modulation," Journal of the Society for Information Display, Vol. 5, No. 4, 379-382, 1997.
11., , http://www.qualcomm.com/mirasol.
12. Kim, H., et al., "Structural colour printing using a magnetically tunable and lithographically fixable photonic crystal," Nature Photonics, Vol. 3, No. 9, 534-540, 2009.
13. Arsenault, A. C., D. P. Puzzo, I. Manners, and G. A. Ozin, "Photonic-crystal full-colour displays," Nature Photonics, Vol. 1, No. 8, 468-472, 2007.
15. Ota, I., J. Ohnishi, and M. Yoshiyam, "Electrophoretic image display panel," Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 61, No. 7, 832-836, 1973.
16. Kostelec, J. and R. Liebert, "Design, fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic display," Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., Vol. 53, No. 8, 606, 1974.
17. Singer, B. and A. L. Dalisa, "X-Y addressable electrophoretic display," Proc. SID, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, 255-266, 1977.
18. Hopper, M. A. and V. Novotny, "Characteristics of a TiO2-based electrophoretic display," J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 126, No. 8, C339, 1979.
19. White, R., "An electrophoretic bar graph display," Proc. SID, Vol. 22, No. 3, 173-180, 1981.
20. Fernandez, J. C., F. J. Delasnieves, R. M. Garcia, and R. Hidalgoalvarez, "The role of zeta-potential in the colloid stability of calcium-oxalate dihydrate dispersions," Colloid Surface, Vol. 61, 123-135, 1991.
21. Barany, S., N. A. Mishchuk, and D. C. Prieve, "Superfast electrophoresis of conducting dispersed particles," J. Colloid Interf. Sci., Vol. 207, No. 2, 240-250, 1998.
22. Comiskey, B., J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, and J. Jacobson, "An electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays," Nature, Vol. 394, No. 6690, 253-255, 1998.
23. Baba, A., S. Sunohara, and T. Kitamura, "Electrodeposition of microcapsule containing electrophoretic pigments for electrophoretic display," Proceedings of the 12th International Display Workshops in Conjunction with Asia Display 2005, IDW/Ad'05, Vol. 1-2, 911-914, 2005.
24. Wang, D. W. and X. P. Zhao, "Fabrication and properties of electrophoretic display thin film for electronic paper," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., Vol. 503, 129-142, 2009.
25. Sim, H. H., Y. J. Kim, and H. J. Choi, "Polymer encapsulated inorganic black pigment nanoparticles and their electrophoretic characteristics," J. Nanosci. Nanotechno, Vol. 12, No. 12, 9254-9258, 2012.
26. Yu, D. G. and J. H. An, "Preparation and characterization of acrylic-based black particles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) by dispersion polymerization for electrophoretic displays," J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem., Vol. 42, No. 22, 5608-5616, 2004.
27. Meng, X. W., T. Wen, S. W. Sun, R. B. Zheng, J. Ren, and F. Q. Tang, "Synthesis and application of carbon-iron oxide Microspheres' black pigments in electrophoretic displays," Nanoscale Res. Lett., Vol. 5, No. 10, 1664-1668, 2010.
28. Kwak, Y., J. Park, D. S. Park, and J. B. Park, "Generating vivid colors on red-green-blue-white electronic-paper display," Appl. Optics, Vol. 47, No. 25, 4491-4500, 2008.
29. Hou, X. Y., S. G. Bian, J. F. Chen, and Y. Le, "High charged red pigment nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays," Opt. Mater., Vol. 35, No. 2, 201-204, 2012.
30. Niu, X. W., Y. M. Sun, S. N. Ding, C. C. Chen, and B. Song, "Preparation and characterization of novel yellow pigments: Hollow TiO2 spheres doped with cerium," J. Mater. Sci.-Mater. EL, Vol. 22, No. 12, 1865-1874, 2011.
31. Kao, W., "Electrophoretic display controller integrated with real-time halftoning and partial region update," Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 36-44, 2010.
32. Bai, P., Z. Yi, and G. Zhou, "An improved driving scheme in an electrophoretic display," International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2013.
33. Zhou, G., et al., "Electrophoretic display with rapid drawing mode waveform," US7804483 B2, 2010.
34. Kao, W., W. Chang, and J. Ye, "Driving waveform design based on response latency analysis of electrophoretic displays," Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 8, No. 10, 596-601, 2012.
35. Wang, Z. and Z. Liu, "The key technology of e-reader based on electrophoretic display," 2010 2nd International Conference on IEEE Software Technology and Engineering (ICSTE), Vol. 1, V1-333-V1-336, 2010.
36. Zhou, G., M. Johnson, and R. Cortie, "Addressing an active matrix electrophoretic display," Proc. IDW'04, 1729-1732, Japan, 2004.
37. Johnson, M., G. Zhou, and J. van de Kamer, "Transition between grayscale and monochrome addressing of an electrophoretic display,", WO Patent 2,005,088,603, 2005.
38. Zhou, G., M. T. Johnson, J. van de Kamer, R. Cortie, and M. E. T. Nelis, "Scrolling function in an electrophoretic display device,", US7796115 B2, 2010.
39. Kao, W., S. Liu, and W. Chang, "Signal processing for playing videos on electrophoretic displays," 2012 IEEE 55th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), 872-875, 2012.
40. Zhou, G., A. V. Henzen, J. van de Kamer, and M. T. Johnson, "Driving method for an electrophoretic display with accurate greyscale and minimized average power consumption,", Google Patents, US 7839381 B2, 2010.
41. Zhou, G., et al., "Driving schemes for active matrix electrophoretic displays," Proc. IDW, AMD2/EP1-1, 239-242, 2003.
42. Heikenfeld, J., P. Drzaic, J. S. Yeo, and T. Koch, "Review paper: A critical review of the present and future prospects for electronic paper," Journal of the Society for Information Display, Vol. 19, No. 2, 129-156, 2011.
43. Zhou, G., E. Niessen, and M. Johnson, "Method of increasing image bi-stability and grayscale accuracy in an electrophoretic display,", WO Patent 2,005,088,600, 2005.
44. Zhou, G., "Electrophoretic display with uniform image stability regardless of the initial optical states,", US Patent Application 20070164982, 2005.
45. Hayes, R. A. and B. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature, Vol. 425, No. 6956, 383-385, 2003.
46. Pitt, M. G., R. W. Zehner, K. R. Amundson, and H. Gates, "Power consumption of microencapsulated display for smart handheld applications," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1378-1381, Wiley Online Library, 2002.
47. Omodani, M., "Invited paper: What is electronic paper? The expectations," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 35, No. 1, 128-131, Wiley Online Library, 2004.
48. Pilato, F., "Sony LIBRIe --- The first ever E-ink e-book reader," Mobile Magazine [online], Vol. 25, 2004.
53. Clark, D. T., S. P. Goodwin, T. Samuelson, and C. Coker, "A qualitative assessment of the kindle e-book reader: Results from initial focus groups," Performance Measurement and Metrics, Vol. 9, No. 2, 118-129, 2008.
54. Ho, A., "Embedding e-paper in smart cards, pricing labels & indicators," Presentation Conducted at Smart Paper Conference, Nov. 15-16, 2006.
55. Zehner, R. W. and W. Malcherek, "Tiled displays and methods for driving same,", Google Patents, US 20050253777 A1, 2005.
63. Moberg, A., M. Johansson, G. Finnveden, and A. Jonsson, "Screening environmental life cycle assessment of printed, web based and tablet e-paper newspaper," Reports from the KTH Centre for Sustainable Communications, 2007.
64. Hyytiainen, I. A., "Electronic device wireless display,", Google Patents, 2008.
68. Lahey, B., A. Girouard, W. Burleson, and R. Vertegaal, "PaperPhone: Understanding the use of bend gestures in mobile devices with flexible electronic paper displays," Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1303-1312, ACM, 2011.
69. Amundson, K., et al., "Flexible, active matrix display constructed using a microencapsulated electrophoretic material and an organicsemi conductor based backplane," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 32, No. 1, 160-163, Wiley Online Library, 2001.
70. Rogers, J. A., et al., "Paper-like electronic displays: Large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 98, No. 9, 4835-4840, 2001.
71. Huitema, E., F. Touwslager, E. Veenendaal, N. Aerle, and P. Lieshout, "Rollable displays: From concept to manufacturing," SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 40, No. 1, 104-107, Wiley Online Library, 2009.
76. Moriya, S., T. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, H. Kawai, and S. Nebashi, "Flexible electrophoretic display with inkjet printed active matrix backplane," NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, Vol. 2007, No. 2, 839-842, Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007.
85. Koo, B. and C. J. Kim, "Evaluation of repeated electrowetting on three different fluoropolymer top coatings," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 23, No. 6, 067002, 2013.
86. Papathanasiou, A., A. Papaioannou, and A. Boudouvis, "Illuminating the connection between contact angle saturation and dielectric breakdown in electrowetting through leakage current measurements," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, No. 3, 034901, 2008.
87. Paneru, M., C. Priest, R. Sedev, and J. Ralston, "Electrowetting of aqueous solutions of ionic liquid in solid-liquid-liquid systems," Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 114, No. 18, 8383-8388, 2010.