In this paper, novel Bowtie antennas which cover complete UHF RFID band (860-960MHz), fabricated on various ultra-low-cost substrates using state-of-the-art printing technologies are investigated as an approach that aims to accommodate the antenna during the package printing process whilst faster production on commercially available paper. The proposed antenna structures are evaluated in reference to circuit and field concepts, to exhibit extreme degree of functional versatility. These antennas are developed to cater the variations which appear in electromagnetic properties and thickness of paper substrate due to various environmental effects. Computed (simulated) and well-agreed measurement results confirm a superior performance of the tag modules while stepping towards next generation of ``green'' tags.
2. Tiang, J.-J., M. T. Islam, N. Misran, and J. S. Mandeep, "Circular microstrip slot antenna for dual-frequency RFID application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 120, 499-512, 2011.
3. Chen, S.-L., S.-K. Kuo, and C.-T. Lin, "A metallic RFID tag design for steel-bar and wire-rod management application in the steel industry," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 91, 195-212, 2009.
4. Zuo, Y., "Survivable RFID systems: Issues, challenges, and techniques," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 40, No. 4, 406-418, 2010.
5. Thomas, S. J., E. Wheeler, J. Teizer, and M. S. Reynolds, "Quadrature amplitude modulated backscatter in passive and semipassive UHF RFID systems," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1175-1182, 2012.
6. Rida, A., L. Yang, R. Vyas, and M. M. Tentzeris, "Conductive inkjet-printed antennas on flexible low-cost paper-based substrates for RFID and WSN applications," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 51, No. 3, 13-23, 2009.
7. Panda, J. R. and R. S. Kshetrimayum, "A printed 2.4 GHz/5.8 GHz dual-band monopole antenna with a protruding stub in the ground plane for WLAN and RFID applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 117, 425-434, 2011.
8. Hsu, H.-T., F.-Y. Kuo, and C.-H. Chang, "Application of quasi log-periodic antenna for UHF passive RFID tag design featuring constant power transmission coe±cient over broadband operation," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 5-6, 575-586, 2010.
9. Jamlos, M. F., T. A. Rahman, M. R. Kamarudin, P. Saad, M. A. Shamsudin, and A. M. M. Dahlan, "A novel adaptive WiFi system with RFID technology," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 108, 417-432, 2010.
10. Alimenti, F., et al., "A new contactless assembly method for paper substrate antennas and UHF RFID chips," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 59, No. 3, 627-637, 2011.
11. Lazaro, A., D. Girbau, and R. Villarino, "Effects of interferences in UHF RFID systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 98, 425-443, 2009.
12. Bose, I. and S. Yan, "The green potential of RFID projects: A case-based analysis," IEEE IT Pro., Vol. 13, No. 1, 41-47, 2011.
13. Makimura, H., et al., "Evolutional design of small antennas for passive UHF-band RFID," IEEE Journals and Magazines, Vol. 47, No. 5, 1510-1513, 2011.
14. Huang, Y. and K. Boyle, Antennas from Theory to Practice, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York, 2008.
15. Jaakola, T., et al., Low cost printed flexible multilayer substrates, 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC 2008, 344-349, 2008.
16. Amin, Y., Q. Chen, H. Tenhunen, and L. R. Zheng, "Evolutionary versatile printable RFID antennas for `Green' electronics," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 26, No. 2-3, 264-273, 2012.
17. Leong, K. S., M. L. Ng, and P. H. Cole, "Investigation of RF cable effect on RFID tag antenna impedance measurement," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int.' Symposium, 573-576, 2007.
18. Bjorninen, T., A. Z. Elsherbeni, and L. Ukkonen, "Low-profile conformal UHF RFID tag antenna for integration with water bottles ," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 1147-1150, 2011.
19. Amin, Y., Q. Chen, H. Tenhunen, and L. R. Zheng, "Performance-optimized Quadrate bowtie RFID antennas for cost-effective and eco-friendly industrial applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 126, 49-64, 2012.
20. Tikhov, Y., "Comments on `antenna design for UHF RFID tags: review and a practical application'," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2006.
21. Kuo, S.-K., S.-L. Chen, and C.-T. Lin, "An accurate method for impedance measurement of RFID tag antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 93-106, 2008.