The 3D probability tomography theory is developed to image polar and dipolar sources of a geophysical field dataset. The purpose of the method is to improve resolution power of buried geophysical targets, using probability as a suitable paradigm allowing all possible equivalent solutions to be included within a single 3D image. The new approach is described by assuming a geophysical field dataset as caused by a discrete number of source poles and dipoles. A few tests are given to show how the combined polar and dipolar tomography can provide a reliable core-and-boundary resolution of the most probable sources of anomalies. An application to the Vesuvius volcano (Naples, Italy) is finally illustrated by analyzing self-potential and geoelectrical datasets collected within the whole volcanic area. A gravity dataset is also analyzed for completeness. The purpose is to get new insights into the Vesuvius shallow structure and hydrothermal system and to outline the features of the deep tectonic depression within which the volcano grew.
1. Abo-Seida, O. M., "Far-field due to a vertical magnetic dipole in sea," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 6, 707-715, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306776143406
2. Capineri, L., D. Daniels, P. Falorni, O. Lopera, and C. Windsor, "Estimation of relative permittivity of shallow soils by using the Ground Penetrating Radar response from different buried targets," PIER Letters, Vol. 2, 63-71, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERL07122803
3. Cassano, E. and P. La Torre, "Geophysics," Somma-vesuvius, Vol. 114/8, 175-196, 1987.
4. Di Maio, R., V. Di Sevo, S. Giammetti, D. Patella, S. Piscitelli, and C. Silenziario, "Self-potential anomalies in some Italian volcanic areas," Annals of Geophysics, 179-186, 1986.
5. Di Maio, R., P. Mauriello, D. Patella, Z. Petrillo, S. Piscitelli, and A. Siniscalchi, "Electric and electromagnetic outline of the Mount Somma-Vesuvius structural setting," Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 82, 219-238, 1998. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(97)00066-8
6. Franceschini, G., A. Abubakar, T. M. Habashy, and A. Massa, "A comparative assessment among iterative linear solvers dealing with electromagnetic integral equations in 3D inhomogeneous anisotropic media," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 7, 899-914, 2007. doi:10.1163/156939307780749048
7. Gnedenko, B. V., Kurs Teorii Verojatnostej, Mir, Moscow, 1979.
8. Habashy, T. M. and A. Abubakar, "A generalized material averaging formulation for modelling of the electromagnetic fields," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 9, 1145-1159, 2007.
9. Iuliano, T., P. Mauriello, and D. Patella, "Looking inside Mount Vesuvius by potential fields integrated geophysical tomographies," Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 113, 363-378, 2002. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(01)00271-2
10. Liu, L., K. Li, and W.-Y. Pan, "Electromagnetic field from a vertical electric dipole in a four-layered region," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 8, 213-241, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08062108
11. Marshall, I. and D. Zohar, Who's Afraid of Schrodinger's Cat?, Bloomsbury, London, 1997.
13. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Gravity probability tomography: A new tool for buried mass distribution imaging," Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 49, 1-12, 2001. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2478.2001.00234.x
14. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Localization of maximum-depth gravity anomaly sources by a distribution of equivalent point masses," Geophysics, Vol. 66, 1431-1437, 2001. doi:10.1190/1.1487088
15. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Introduction to tensorial resistivity probability tomography," arXiv:physics/0512147v1, 1-8, 2005.
16. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Localization of magnetic sources underground by a data adaptive tomographic scanner," arXiv:physics/0511192v2, 1-15, 2005.
17. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Imaging polar and dipolar sources of geophysical anomalies by probability tomography. Part I: Theory and synthetic examples," arXiv:physics/0602056v1, 1-6, 2006.
18. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Imaging polar and dipolar sources of geophysical anomalies by probability tomography. Part II: Application to Vesuvius volcanic area," arXiv:physics/0602057v1, 1-7, 2006.
19. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Resistivity tensor probability tomography," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 8, 129-146, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08051604
20. Mauriello, P. and D. Patella, "Localization of magnetic sources underground by a probability tomography approach," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 3, 27-56, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERM08050504
21. Mauriello, P., D. Monna, and D. Patella, "3D geoelectric tomography and archaeological applications," Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 46, 43-570, 1998.
22. Ozdemir, C., S. Demirci, and E. Yigit, "Practical algorithms to focus B-scan GPR images: Theory and application to real data," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 6, 109-122, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08031207
25. Patella, D. and P. Mauriello, "The geophysical contribution to the safeguard of historical sites in active volcanic areas. The Vesuvius case-history," Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 41, 241-258, 1999. doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(98)00045-7
26. Popov, A. V. and V. V. Kopeikin, "Electromagnetic pulse propagation over non-uniform earth surface: Numerical simulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 6, 37-64, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08031102
27. Principe, C., M. Rosi, R. Santacroce, and A. Sbrana, "Explanatory notes to the geological map," Somma-vesuvius, Vol. 114/8, 11-51, 1997.
28. Spera, F. J., B. De Vivo, R. A. Ayuso, and H. E. Belkin, "Special issue: Vesuvius," Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 82, 1-247, 1998.
29. Van den Bosch, I., S. Lambot, M. Acheroy, I. Huynen, and P. Druyts, "Accurate and efficient modeling of monostatic GPR signal of dielectric targets buried in stratified media," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3, 283-290, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306775701704
30. Wang, Y.-L., W. Ren, and K. Li, "Exact transient field of a horizontal electric dipole excited by a Gaussian pulse on the surface of one-dimensionally anisotropic medium," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 8, 307-318, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08062005
31. Zlotnicki, J. and Y. Nishida, "Review on morphological insights of self-potential anomalies on volcanoes," Survey in Geophysics, Vol. 24, 291-338, 2003. doi:10.1023/B:GEOP.0000004188.67923.ac