A novel scheme for detecting the location of a metallic mine (modeled as a perfectly conducting sphere and spheroid) in marine environment is presented. This technique takes into account Eddy-Current response (ECR) induced on the conducting marine mines as well as Current-Channeling response (CCR) associated with the perturbation of currents induced in the conductive marine environment. It leverages on the unique electromotive force (EMF) induced in a receiving coil through different orientations of a transmitting coil with respect to the marine mine. Unlike conventional EM sensing apparatus which is used to carry out the measurement at just one attitude at a fixed angle with respect to buried mine, our proposed scheme consists of angular scanning via the symmetry axes of a concentric sensor over the metallic mine in order to obtain a unique normalized induced voltage determining the mine's depth. Simulated results show that this technique has the potential of extending the depth detection range compared with the current method especially in conductive marine environment up to about 2 meters away from the sensor.
1. Won, I. J., S. Norton, B. SanFilipo, and F. Funak, "Active broadband electromagnetic detection and classification of buried naval mines," MTS/IEEE Oceans'02, Vol. 2, 966-973, Oct. 2002. doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2002.1192099
2. Wu, R., J. Liu, T. Li, Q. Gao, H. Li, and B. Zhang, "Progress in the research of ground bounce removal for landmine detection with ground penetrating radar ," PIERS Online, Vol. 1, No. 3, 336-340, 2005. doi:10.2529/PIERS041130195615
3. Won, I. J., D. A. Keiswetter, and T. H. Bell, "Electromagnetic induction spectroscopy for clearing landmines," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, 703-709, Apr. 2001. doi:10.1109/36.917876
4. Tiwari, K. C., D. Singh, and M. K. Arora, "Development of a model for detection and estimation of depth of shallow buried non-metallic landmine at microwave X-band frequency," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 79, 225-250, 2008.
5. Fernandez, J. P., K. Sun, B. Barrowes, K. O'Neill, I. Shamatava, F. Shubitidze, and K. Paulsen, "Inferring the location of buried UXO using a support vector machine," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6553, Orlando Florida, Apr. 11-12, 2007.
6. Weichman, P. B. and E. M. Lavely, "Study of inverse problems for buried UXO discrimination based on EMI sensor data," Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 5089, 1189-1200, 2003. doi:10.1117/12.487145
7. Sun, Y., X. Li, and J. Li, "Practical landmine detector using forward-looking ground penetrating radar," Electronics Letters, Vol. 41, 97-98, Jan. 2005. doi:10.1049/el:20057339
8. Moustafa, K. and K. F. A. Hussein, "Performance evaluation of separated aperture sensor GPR system for land mine detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 72, 21-37, 2007.
9. Zainud-Deen, S. H., M. E. Badr, E. El-Deen, K. H. Awadalla, and H. A. Sharshar, "Microstrip antenna with corrugated ground plane surface as a sensor for landmines detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 2, 259-278, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB07112702
10. Sato, M., Y. Hamada, X. Feng, F. Kong, Z. Zeng, and G. Fang, "GPR using an array antenna for landmine detection," Near Surface Geophysics, 3-9, 2004.
11. Nishimoto, M., S. Ueno, and Y. Kimura, "Feature extraction from GPR data for identification of landmine-like objects under rough ground surface," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 12, 1577-1586, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306779292318
12. SanFilipo, B., S. Norton, and I. J. Won, "The effects of seawater on the EMI response of UXO," OCEANS, 2005. Proceedings of MTS/IEEE, Vol. 1, 607-614, 2005.
13. Lindell, I. V. and A. H. Sihvola, "Reflection and transmission of waves at the interface of perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 5, 169-183, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08022010
14. Xu, L., Y. C. Guo, and X. W. Shi, "Dielectric half space model for the analysis of scattering from objects on ocean surface," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 15, 2287-2296, 2007. doi:10.1163/156939307783134272
15. Abo-Seida, O. M., "Far-field due to a vertical magnetic dipole in sea," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 6, 707-715, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306776143406
16. Vafeas, P., G. Perrusson, and D. Lesselier, "Low-frequency solution for a perfectly conducting sphere in a conductive medium with dipolar excitation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 49, 87-111, 2004.
17. Braunisch, H. H., C. O. Ao, K. O'Neill, and J. A. Kong, "Magnetoquasistatic response of conducting and permeable prolate spheroid under axial excitation ," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 12, 2689-2701, Dec. 2001. doi:10.1109/36.975003
18. Das, Y., J. E. Mcfee, and R. H. Chesney, "Determination of depth of shallowly buried objects by electromagnetic induction," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 23, 60-66, Jan. 1985. doi:10.1109/TGRS.1985.289501
19. Norton, S. J. and I. J. Won, "Identification of buried unexploded ordnance from broadband electromagnetic induction data," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, 2253-2261, Oct. 2001.
20. Ao, C. O., H. Braunisch, K. O'Neill, and J. A. Kong, "Quasi-magnetostatic solution for a conducting and permeable spheroid with arbitrary excitation ," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 40, No. 4, 887-897, Apr. 2002. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2002.1006370
21. Norton, S. J., W. A. SanFilipo, and I. J. Won, "Eddy-current and current-channeling response to spheroidal anomalies," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2200-2209, Oct. 2005. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.856641
22. Mukerji, S. K., M. George, and M. B. Ramamurthy, "Eddy currents in solid rectangular cores," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 7, 117-131, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08022801
23. Abramowitz, M. and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Dover, New York, 1965.
24. Kotsis, A. D. and J. A. Roumeliotis, "Electromagnetic scattering by a metallic spheroid using shape perturbation method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 67, 113-134, 2007.
25. Huang, M. D. and S. Y. Tan, "Efficient electrically small prolate spheroidal antennas coating with a shell of double-negative metamaterials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 241-255, PIER 82, 2008.