Vol. 94
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIER 176 [2023] PIER 175 [2022] PIER 174 [2022] PIER 173 [2022] PIER 172 [2021] PIER 171 [2021] PIER 170 [2021] PIER 169 [2020] PIER 168 [2020] PIER 167 [2020] PIER 166 [2019] PIER 165 [2019] PIER 164 [2019] PIER 163 [2018] PIER 162 [2018] PIER 161 [2018] PIER 160 [2017] PIER 159 [2017] PIER 158 [2017] PIER 157 [2016] PIER 156 [2016] PIER 155 [2016] PIER 154 [2015] PIER 153 [2015] PIER 152 [2015] PIER 151 [2015] PIER 150 [2015] PIER 149 [2014] PIER 148 [2014] PIER 147 [2014] PIER 146 [2014] PIER 145 [2014] PIER 144 [2014] PIER 143 [2013] PIER 142 [2013] PIER 141 [2013] PIER 140 [2013] PIER 139 [2013] PIER 138 [2013] PIER 137 [2013] PIER 136 [2013] PIER 135 [2013] PIER 134 [2013] PIER 133 [2013] PIER 132 [2012] PIER 131 [2012] PIER 130 [2012] PIER 129 [2012] PIER 128 [2012] PIER 127 [2012] PIER 126 [2012] PIER 125 [2012] PIER 124 [2012] PIER 123 [2012] PIER 122 [2012] PIER 121 [2011] PIER 120 [2011] PIER 119 [2011] PIER 118 [2011] PIER 117 [2011] PIER 116 [2011] PIER 115 [2011] PIER 114 [2011] PIER 113 [2011] PIER 112 [2011] PIER 111 [2011] PIER 110 [2010] PIER 109 [2010] PIER 108 [2010] PIER 107 [2010] PIER 106 [2010] PIER 105 [2010] PIER 104 [2010] PIER 103 [2010] PIER 102 [2010] PIER 101 [2010] PIER 100 [2010] PIER 99 [2009] PIER 98 [2009] PIER 97 [2009] PIER 96 [2009] PIER 95 [2009] PIER 94 [2009] PIER 93 [2009] PIER 92 [2009] PIER 91 [2009] PIER 90 [2009] PIER 89 [2009] PIER 88 [2008] PIER 87 [2008] PIER 86 [2008] PIER 85 [2008] PIER 84 [2008] PIER 83 [2008] PIER 82 [2008] PIER 81 [2008] PIER 80 [2008] PIER 79 [2008] PIER 78 [2008] PIER 77 [2007] PIER 76 [2007] PIER 75 [2007] PIER 74 [2007] PIER 73 [2007] PIER 72 [2007] PIER 71 [2007] PIER 70 [2007] PIER 69 [2007] PIER 68 [2007] PIER 67 [2007] PIER 66 [2006] PIER 65 [2006] PIER 64 [2006] PIER 63 [2006] PIER 62 [2006] PIER 61 [2006] PIER 60 [2006] PIER 59 [2006] PIER 58 [2006] PIER 57 [2006] PIER 56 [2006] PIER 55 [2005] PIER 54 [2005] PIER 53 [2005] PIER 52 [2005] PIER 51 [2005] PIER 50 [2005] PIER 49 [2004] PIER 48 [2004] PIER 47 [2004] PIER 46 [2004] PIER 45 [2004] PIER 44 [2004] PIER 43 [2003] PIER 42 [2003] PIER 41 [2003] PIER 40 [2003] PIER 39 [2003] PIER 38 [2002] PIER 37 [2002] PIER 36 [2002] PIER 35 [2002] PIER 34 [2001] PIER 33 [2001] PIER 32 [2001] PIER 31 [2001] PIER 30 [2001] PIER 29 [2000] PIER 28 [2000] PIER 27 [2000] PIER 26 [2000] PIER 25 [2000] PIER 24 [1999] PIER 23 [1999] PIER 22 [1999] PIER 21 [1999] PIER 20 [1998] PIER 19 [1998] PIER 18 [1998] PIER 17 [1997] PIER 16 [1997] PIER 15 [1997] PIER 14 [1996] PIER 13 [1996] PIER 12 [1996] PIER 11 [1995] PIER 10 [1995] PIER 09 [1994] PIER 08 [1994] PIER 07 [1993] PIER 06 [1992] PIER 05 [1991] PIER 04 [1991] PIER 03 [1990] PIER 02 [1990] PIER 01 [1989]
2009-07-08
Parametric Study of Power Absorption Patterns Induced in Adult and Child Head Models by Small Helical Antennas
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 49-67, 2009
Abstract
ƒA comparative assessment of power absorption in adult and child heads exposed to a small helical antenna at 1710 MHz, is presented, emphasizing the effect of age related parameters. Finite Difference Time Domain simulations are employed to study the interaction between MRI-based head models and a mobile communication terminal equipped with a small helical monopole. A semi-analytical method, based on Green's function theory and the Method of Moments, is used to study the absorption in three-layer spherical head models exposed to a small helical dipole. SAR patterns in child head models derived by non-uniform scaling of adult ones were assessed against SAR patterns computed in child heads derived by uniform downscaling procedures. In both realistic and canonical exposure scenarios, comparable levels of absorbed power (maximum difference: 12%) in adult and child head models were observed. Dependence of SAR values upon separation distance and tissue dielectric properties was quantitatively assessed. In realistic exposure scenarios, the reduction in peak SAR values was 60-80% for a 1 cm increase in distance and up to 16% for a 110% to 90% decrease in dielectric properties values with reference to the nominal value of 100%. These trends were respectively less (55-65%) and more (up to 24%) emphasized in the corresponding canonical exposure scenarios.
Citation
Maria Christopoulou Stavros Koulouridis Konstantina Nikita , "Parametric Study of Power Absorption Patterns Induced in Adult and Child Head Models by Small Helical Antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 49-67, 2009.
doi:10.2528/PIER09031305
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=09031305
References

1. ICNIRP, "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up 300 GHz)," Health Phys., Vol. 74, 494-522, Apr. 1998.

2. IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure, IEEE, Std C95.1 (Revision of IEEE Std C95.1-1991), 1-238, 2005..

3. Mobile Phones and Health, Vol. 15, No. 5 IEGMP, National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, 2004.

4. Gandhi absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835MHz and 1900 MHz, O. P., G. Lazzi, and C. M. Furse, "Electromagnetic ," IEEE Trans. Microwave. Theory Tech.,, Vol. 44, 1884-1897, Oct. 1996.

5. SchÄonborn, F., M. Burkhardt, and N. Kuster, "Differences in energy absorption between heads of adults and children in the near field of sources," Heath Phys., Vol. 74, 160-168, Feb. 1998.

6. Keshvari, J., R. Keshvari, and S. Lang, "The effect of increase in dielectric values on specific absorption rate (SAR) in eye and head tissues following 900, 1800 and 2450MHz radio frequency (RF) exposure," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 51, 1463-1477, Mar. 2006.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/51/6/007

7. Hadjem, A., D. Lautru, C. Dale, M. F. Wong, V. F. Hanna, and J. Wiart, "Study of specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in two child head models and in adult heads using mobile phones," IEEE Trans. Microwave. Theory Tech., Vol. 53, 4-11, Jan. 2005.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.839343

8. Nikita, K. S., et al., "A study of uncertainties in modeling antenna performance and power absorption in the head of a cellular phone user," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 48, 2676-2685, Dec. 2000.
doi:10.1109/22.899030

9. Wang, J. and O. Fujiwara, "Comparison and evaluation of electromagnetic absorption characteristics in realistic human head models of adult and children for 900-MHz mobile telephones," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 51, 966-971, Mar. 2003.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2003.808681

10. Hirata, A., K. Shirai, and O. Fujiwara, "On averaging mass of SAR correlating with temperature elevation due to a dipole antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 221-237, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIER08072704

11. Ibrahiem, A., C. Dale, W. Tabbara, and J. Wiart, "Analysis of the temperature increase linked to the power induced by RF source," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 23-46, 2005.
doi:10.2528/PIER04062501

12. Liu, Y., Z. Liang, and Z. Yang, "Computation of electromagnetic dosimetry for human body using parallel fdtd algorithm combined with interpolation technique," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 82, 95-107, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIER08021603

13. Khalatbari, S., D. Sardari, A. A. Mirzaee, and H. A. Sadafi, "Calculating SAR in two models of the human head exposed to mobile phones radiations at 900 and 1800 MHz," PIERS Online, Vol. 2, No. 1, 104-109, 2006.
doi:10.2529/PIERS050905190653

14. Kouveliotis, N. K. and C. N. Capsalis, "Prediction of the SAR level induced in a dielectric sphere by a thin wire dipole antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 80, 321-336, 2006.

15. Gandhi, O. P. and G. Kang, "Some present problems and a proposed experimental phantom for SAR compliance testing of cellular telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 47, 1501-1518, Apr. 2002.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/47/9/306

16. Koulouridis, S. and K. S. Nikita, "Study of the coupling between human head and cellular phone helical antennas," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 46, 62-70, Feb. 2004.
doi:10.1109/TEMC.2004.823612

17. Ebrahimi-Ganjeh, M. A. and A. R. Attari, "Interaction of dual band helical and PIFA handset antennas with human head and hand," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 225-242, 2007.
doi:10.2528/PIER07081804

18. Koulouridis, S. and K. S. Nikita, "Characteristics of power absorption in human head models exposed to normal mode helical antennas," Proc. Second International Workshop on Biological E®ects of Electromagnetic Fields, Vol. 1, 241-250, Oct. 7-11, 2002.

19. Farkas, L. G., Anthropometry of the Head and Face, 2nd Ed., App. A, 244, Raven Press, New York, 1994.

20. Kuster, N., R. KÄastle, and T. Schmid, "Dosimetric evaluation of handheld mobile comm unications equipment with known precision," IEICE Trans. Communications, Vol. E80-B, 645-652, May 1997.

21. Peyman, A., S. J. Holden, S. Watts, R. Perrott, and C. Gabriel, "Dielectric properties of porcine cerebrospinal tissues at microwave frequencies: In vivo, in vitro and systematic variation with age ," Phys. Med. Biol., No. 52, 2229-2245, 2007.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/8/013

22. Wang, J., O. Fujiwara, and S.Watanabe, "Approximation of aging effect on dielectric tissue properties for SAR assessment of mobile telephones," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 48, 408-413, May 2006.
doi:10.1109/TEMC.2006.874085

23. Reiβenweber, J. and J. Poess, "Growth in infancy and childhood with tables,", Extensive report supported by FGF,Wireless and Cable Research Group, Department of Information Technology, INTEC, Universitein Gent, Short-term Mission: Mobile Communication and Children COST 281 project), Working Group: Anatomical properties and (in the framework of the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms, 2003..

24. Simms, D. L. and J. G. Neely, "Thickness of the lateral surface of the temporal bone in children," Ann. Oto. Rhinol. Laryn., Vol. 98, 726-731, 1989.

25. Olley, P. and P. S. Excell, "Classification of a high-resolution voxel image of a human head," Proc. Int. Workshop at the National Radiological Protection Board, P. J. Dimbylow (ed.), 16-23, Chilton, U.K., 1995.

26. Tsakanikas, V. and V. Triantos, "Comparative evaluation of power absorption due to electromagnetic radiation of mobile handsets used by adults and children (FDTD method),", Diploma Thesis (in Greek), NTUA, Jul. 2005.

27. Gabriel, C., S. Gabriel, and E. Corthout, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 41, 2231-2293, 1996.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001

28. Tinniswood, A. D., C. M. Furse, and O. P. Gandhi, "Computations of SAR distributions for two anatomically{based models of the human head using CAD ¯les of commercial telephones and the parallelized FDTD code," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 46, 829-833, Jun. 1998.
doi:10.1109/8.686769

29. Taflove, A. and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-di®erence Time-domain Method, 2nd Ed., Artech House, 2000.

30. Koulouridis, S. and K. S. Nikita, "Analysis of the interaction between a layered spherical human head model and an arbitrary shaped antenna using a hybrid Green/MoM technique," Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Advances in Communications and Control, 25-29, Crete, Greece, Jun. 2001.

31. Mahmoud, K. R., M. El-Adawy, S. M. M. Ibrahem, R. Bansal, and S. H. Zainud-Deen, "Investigating the interaction between a human head and a smart handset for 4G mobile communication systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 2, 169-188, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERC08032405

32. Kang, X. K., L. W. Li, M. S. Leong, and P. S. Kooi, "A method of moments study of SAR inside spheroidal human head and current distribution along handset wire antennas," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 15, No. 1, 61-76, 2001.
doi:10.1163/156939301X00643

33. Kouveliotis, N. K., S. C. Panagiotou, P. K. Varlamos, and C. N. Capsalis, "Theoretical approach of the interaction between a human head model and a mobile handsets helical antenna using numerical methods," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 309-327, 2006.
doi:10.2528/PIER06101901

34. Kouveliotis, N. K., P. J. Papakanellos, E. D. Nanou, N. I. Sakka, V. S. G. Tsiafakis, and C. N. Capsalis, "Correlation between SAR, SWR and distance of a mobile terminal antenna in front of a experimental validation," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 17, No. 11, 1561-1581, 2003.
doi:10.1163/156939303772681415

35. Yoshida, K., A. Hirata, Z. Kawasaki, and T. Shiozawa, "Human head modeling for modeling for handset antenna design at 5 GHz band," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 3, 401-411, 2005.
doi:10.1163/1569393054139679

36. Kiminami, K., A. Hirata, Y. Horii, and T. Shiozawa, "A study on human body modeling for the mobile terminal antenna design at 400MHz band," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 5, 671-687, 2005.
doi:10.1163/1569393053305080

37. Kainz, W., A. Christ, T. Kellom, S. Seidman, N. Nikoloski, B. B. Beard, and N. Kuster, "Dosimetric comparison of the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) to 14 anatomical head models using a novel definition for the mobile phone positioning," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 50, 3423-3445, Jul. 2005.

38. Li, L. W., M. S. Leong, P. S. Kooi, and T. S. Yeo, "Specific absorption rates in human head due to handset antennas: A comparative study using FDTD method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 14, No. 7, 987-1001, 2000.