Based on vector electromagnetic theory and the Waveguide Model, the vector Hopkins model is deduced. The model contains the vector Hopkins formula and the resist profile model of fast Optical Proximity Correction. The vector Hopkins formula considers incidence angles and azimuth angles of off-axis illumination, which differs from the traditional scalar Hopkins formula. The resist profile model is employed to analyze the effect of the photoresist diffusion under off-axis illumination by using self-adaptive Gaussian filter with scale adjustable, and a new transmission cross coefficient is obtained. The projection system parameters are introduced simultaneously, such as incidence angles, azimuth angles of off-axis illumination and diffusion parameters of photoresist. By simulating the aerial image of 3D mask in the actual lithography process, the optimal angular range of oblique incidence is studied; the image quality by impact with the oblique incidence angle is discussed as well.
"Vector Hopkins Model Research Based on off
-Axis Illumination in Nanoscale Lithography," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 93, 291-306, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09031702
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