Flat left-handed metamaterial (LHM) lens can generate appropriate focusing spot in biological tissue as required in microwave tumor hyperthermia treatment. By using single flat LHM lens to concentrate microwave in a mass of tissue covered by water bolus, microwave hyperthermia scheme is proposed for superficial tumor hyperthermia. The power distribution in tissue is simulated by finite-difference time-domain method, and the thermal pattern is calculated by solving the bio-heat transfer equation. It is demonstrated that, by using a flat LHM lens of thickness of 4 cm to concentrate microwave of 2.45 GHz, a temperature above 42oC can be achieved and maintained in one hour in a tissue region of about 1.0 cm in width and 1.2 cm in depth in tissue with the source amplitude of 43.40 V/cm, which is suitable for superficial tumor hyperthermia. By adjusting the position of microwave source, the heating zone in tissue can be adjusted in both the lateral and depth direction in tissue. The effects of fat layer and water bolus on the performance of hyperthermia are investigated as well.
"Superficial Tumor Hyperthermia with Flat Left-Handed Metamaterial Lens," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 98, 389-405, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09091401
1. Vernon, C. C., J. W. Hand, S. B. Field, D. Machin, J. B. Whaley, J. Van Der Zee, W. L. J. Van Putten, G. C. Van Rhoon, J. D. P. Van Dijk, D. G. Gonzalez, F. Liu, P. Goodman, and M. Sherar, "Radiotherapy with or without hyperthermia in the treatment of superficial localized breast cancer: Results from five randomized controlled trials," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., Vol. 35, No. 4, 731-744, 1996.
2. Rietveld, P. J. M., W. L. J. Van Putten, J. Van Der Zee, and G. C. Van Rhoon, "Comparison of the clinical effectiveness of the 433MHz Lucite cone applicator with that of a conventional waveguide applicator in applications of superficial hyperthermia," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. , Vol. 43, No. 3, 681-687, 1999.
4. Prior, M. V., M. L. D. Lumori, J. W. Hand, G. Lamaitre, C. J. Schneider, and J. D. P. van Dijk, "The use of a current sheet applicator array for super¯cial hyperthermia: Incoherent versus coherent operation," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 42, No. 7, 694-698, 1995. doi:10.1109/10.391168
5. Jacobsen, S., P. R. Stauffer, and D. G. Neuman, "Dual-mode antenna design for microwave heating and noninvasive thermometry of superficial tissue disease," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 47, No. 11, 1500-1509, 2000. doi:10.1109/10.880102
6. Gupta, R. C. and S. P. Singh, "Elliptically bent slotted waveguide conformal focused array for hyperthermia treatment of tumors in curved region of human body ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 62, 107-125, 2006. doi:10.2528/PIER06012801
7. Jones, E. L., J. R. Oleson, L. R. Prosnitz, T. V. Samulski, Z. Vujaskovic, D. Yu, L. L. Sanders, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Randomized trial of hyperthermia and radiation for superficial tumors ," J. Clinical Oncol., Vol. 23, No. 13, 3079-3085, 2005. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.05.520
8. Kapp, D. S., "\Efficacy of adjuvant hyperthermia in the treatment of super¯cial recurrent breast cancer: Confirmation and future directions," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., Vol. 35, No. 5, 1117-1121.
9. Lee, H. K., A. G. Antell, C. A. Perez, W. L. Straube, G. Ramachandran, R. J. Myerson, B. Emami, E. P. Molmenti, A. Buckner, and M. A. Locket, "Superficial hyperthermia and irradiation for recurrent breast carcinoma of the chest wall: Prognostic factors in 196 tumors," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., Vol. 40, No. 2, 365-375, 1998.
10. Aydin, K., I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution with a negative-index metamaterial superlens ," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 90, No. 25, 254102-2007. doi:10.1063/1.2750393
11. Zhu, J. and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Experimental verification of overcoming the diffraction limit with a volumetric Veselago-Pendry transmission-line lens," Phy. Rev. Lett., Vol. 101, No. 1, 013902, 2008. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.013902
13. Wang, G., J. R. Fang, and H. J. Wang, "Focusing of a flat left-handed metamaterial lens in a heterogeneous and lossy medium," Chin. Phys. Lett., Vol. 26, No. 5, 057801, 2009. doi:10.1088/0256-307X/26/5/057801
14. Zhao, L. and T. J. Cui, "Enhancement of specific absorption rate in lossy dielectric objects using a slab of left-handed material," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 72, No. 6, 061911, 2005. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.72.061911
15. Karathanasis, K. T., I. S. Karanasiou, and N. K. Uzunoglu, Enhancing the focusing properties of a prototype non-invasive brain hyperthermia system: A simulation study, Proc. Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 218-221, 2007.
16. Wang, G. and Y. Gong, "Metamaterial lens applicator for microwave hyperthermia of breast cancer," Int. J. Hyperthermia, Vol. 25, No. 6, 434-455, 2009. doi:10.1080/02656730903061609
17. Wang, G., Y. Gong, and H. J. Wang, "Schemes of microwave hyperthermia by using flat left-handed material lenses," Microwave and Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 7, 1738-1743, 2009. doi:10.1002/mop.24449
18., , FCC, Body tissue dielectric parameters tool. http://www.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety/dielectric.html. doi:10.1002/mop.24449
19. Zhao, Y., P. Belov, and Y. Hao, "Accurate modeling of the optical properties of left-handed media using a finite-difference time-domain method," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 75, No. 3, 037602, 2007. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.037602
20. Wang, G., Y. Gong, and H. J. Wang, "On the size of left-handed material lens for near-field target detection by focus scanning," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 87, 345-361, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08101902
21. Pennes, H. H., "Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm," J. Appl. Physiol, Vol. 85, No. 1, 5-34, 1998.
22. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, "Specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in a subject exposed in the far-field of radio-frequency sources operating in the 10-900-MHz range," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 50, No. 3, 295-304, 1998. doi:10.1109/TBME.2003.808809
23. Neuman, D. G., P. R. Stauffer, S. Jacobsen, and F. Rossetto, "SAR pattern perturbations from resonance effects in water bolus layers used with superficial microwave hyperthermia applicators," Int. J. Hyperthermia, Vol. 18, No. 3, 180-193, 2002. doi:10.1080/02656730110119198
24. Gelvich, E. A. and V. N. Mazokhin, "Resonance effects in applicators water boluses and their influence on SAR distribution patterns ," Int. J. Hyperthermia, Vol. 16, No. 2, 113-128, 2000. doi:10.1080/026567300285321
25. Ebrahimi-Ganjeh, M. A. and A. R. Attari, "Study of water bolus effect on SAR penetration depth and effective field size for local hyperthermia," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 4, 273-283, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08011403