A comprehensive review has been done on the types of electromagnetic transients that may affect low voltage electrical systems. The paper discusses various characteristics of lightning, switching, nuclear and intentional microwave impulses giving special attention to their impact on equipment and systems. The analysis shows that transients have a wide range of rise time, half peak width, action integral etc. with respect to both source and coupling mechanism. Hence, transient protection technology should be more specific with regard to the capabilities of the protection devices. Furthermore, we discuss the components and techniques available for the protection of low voltage systems from lightning generated electrical transients and the adequacy of International Standards in addressing the transient protection issues. The outcome of our analysis questions the suitability of 8/20 μs test current impulse in representing characteristics such as the time derivative and the energy content of lightning impulses. The 10/350 μs test current impulse better represents the integrated effects of the energy content of impulse component and long continuing current. A new waveform is required to be specified for testing the ability of protective devices to respond to the fast leading edges of subsequent strokes that may appear 100s of millisecond after the preceding stroke. The test voltage waveform 1.2/50 μs should also be modified to evaluate the response of protective devices for fast leading edges of induced voltage transients. A surge protective device that is tested for lightning transients may not be able to provide defense against other transients.
"Electromagnetic Transients in Radio/Microwave Bands and Surge Protection Devices," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 108, 101-130, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIER10070304
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