Vol. 109
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIER 178 [2023] PIER 177 [2023] PIER 176 [2023] PIER 175 [2022] PIER 174 [2022] PIER 173 [2022] PIER 172 [2021] PIER 171 [2021] PIER 170 [2021] PIER 169 [2020] PIER 168 [2020] PIER 167 [2020] PIER 166 [2019] PIER 165 [2019] PIER 164 [2019] PIER 163 [2018] PIER 162 [2018] PIER 161 [2018] PIER 160 [2017] PIER 159 [2017] PIER 158 [2017] PIER 157 [2016] PIER 156 [2016] PIER 155 [2016] PIER 154 [2015] PIER 153 [2015] PIER 152 [2015] PIER 151 [2015] PIER 150 [2015] PIER 149 [2014] PIER 148 [2014] PIER 147 [2014] PIER 146 [2014] PIER 145 [2014] PIER 144 [2014] PIER 143 [2013] PIER 142 [2013] PIER 141 [2013] PIER 140 [2013] PIER 139 [2013] PIER 138 [2013] PIER 137 [2013] PIER 136 [2013] PIER 135 [2013] PIER 134 [2013] PIER 133 [2013] PIER 132 [2012] PIER 131 [2012] PIER 130 [2012] PIER 129 [2012] PIER 128 [2012] PIER 127 [2012] PIER 126 [2012] PIER 125 [2012] PIER 124 [2012] PIER 123 [2012] PIER 122 [2012] PIER 121 [2011] PIER 120 [2011] PIER 119 [2011] PIER 118 [2011] PIER 117 [2011] PIER 116 [2011] PIER 115 [2011] PIER 114 [2011] PIER 113 [2011] PIER 112 [2011] PIER 111 [2011] PIER 110 [2010] PIER 109 [2010] PIER 108 [2010] PIER 107 [2010] PIER 106 [2010] PIER 105 [2010] PIER 104 [2010] PIER 103 [2010] PIER 102 [2010] PIER 101 [2010] PIER 100 [2010] PIER 99 [2009] PIER 98 [2009] PIER 97 [2009] PIER 96 [2009] PIER 95 [2009] PIER 94 [2009] PIER 93 [2009] PIER 92 [2009] PIER 91 [2009] PIER 90 [2009] PIER 89 [2009] PIER 88 [2008] PIER 87 [2008] PIER 86 [2008] PIER 85 [2008] PIER 84 [2008] PIER 83 [2008] PIER 82 [2008] PIER 81 [2008] PIER 80 [2008] PIER 79 [2008] PIER 78 [2008] PIER 77 [2007] PIER 76 [2007] PIER 75 [2007] PIER 74 [2007] PIER 73 [2007] PIER 72 [2007] PIER 71 [2007] PIER 70 [2007] PIER 69 [2007] PIER 68 [2007] PIER 67 [2007] PIER 66 [2006] PIER 65 [2006] PIER 64 [2006] PIER 63 [2006] PIER 62 [2006] PIER 61 [2006] PIER 60 [2006] PIER 59 [2006] PIER 58 [2006] PIER 57 [2006] PIER 56 [2006] PIER 55 [2005] PIER 54 [2005] PIER 53 [2005] PIER 52 [2005] PIER 51 [2005] PIER 50 [2005] PIER 49 [2004] PIER 48 [2004] PIER 47 [2004] PIER 46 [2004] PIER 45 [2004] PIER 44 [2004] PIER 43 [2003] PIER 42 [2003] PIER 41 [2003] PIER 40 [2003] PIER 39 [2003] PIER 38 [2002] PIER 37 [2002] PIER 36 [2002] PIER 35 [2002] PIER 34 [2001] PIER 33 [2001] PIER 32 [2001] PIER 31 [2001] PIER 30 [2001] PIER 29 [2000] PIER 28 [2000] PIER 27 [2000] PIER 26 [2000] PIER 25 [2000] PIER 24 [1999] PIER 23 [1999] PIER 22 [1999] PIER 21 [1999] PIER 20 [1998] PIER 19 [1998] PIER 18 [1998] PIER 17 [1997] PIER 16 [1997] PIER 15 [1997] PIER 14 [1996] PIER 13 [1996] PIER 12 [1996] PIER 11 [1995] PIER 10 [1995] PIER 09 [1994] PIER 08 [1994] PIER 07 [1993] PIER 06 [1992] PIER 05 [1991] PIER 04 [1991] PIER 03 [1990] PIER 02 [1990] PIER 01 [1989]
2010-10-25
Optimal Sub-Arraying of Compromise Planar Arrays through an Innovative ACO-Weighted Procedure
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 109, 279-299, 2010
Abstract
In this paper, the synthesis of sub-arrayed monopulse planar arrays providing an optimal sum pattern and best compromise difference patterns is addressed by means of an innovative clustering approach based on the Ant Colony Optimizer. Exploiting the similarity properties of optimal and independent sum and difference excitation sets, the problem is reformulated into a combinatorial one where the definition of the sub-array configuration is obtained through the search of a path within a weighted graph. Such a weighting strategy allows one to effectively sample the solution space avoiding bias towards sub-optimal solutions. The sub-array weight coefficients are then determined in an optimal way by exploiting the convexity of the problem at hand by means of a convex programming procedure. Representative results are reported to assess the effectiveness of the weighted global optimization and its advantages over previous implementations.
Citation
Giacomo Oliveri, and Lorenzo Poli, "Optimal Sub-Arraying of Compromise Planar Arrays through an Innovative ACO-Weighted Procedure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 109, 279-299, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIER10092008
References

1. Skolnik, M. I., Radar Handbook, 3 Ed., McGraw-Hill, USA, 2008.

2. Sherman, S. M., Monopulse Principles and Techniques, Artech House, USA, 1984.

3. Barton, D. K., Monopulse Radar, Artech House, USA, 1977.

4. McNamara, D. A., "Synthesis of sub-arrayed monopulse linear arrays through matching of independently optimum sum and difference excitations," IEE Proc. H Microwaves Antennas Propag., Vol. 135, No. 5, 371-374, Oct. 1988.

5. Lee, T.-S. and T.-Y. Dai, "Optimum beamformers for monopulse angle estimation using overlapping subarrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 42, No. 5, 651-657, May 1994.
doi:10.1109/8.299575

6. Lee, T.-S. and T.-K. Tseng, "Subarray-synthesized low-side-lobe sum and difference patterns with partial common weights," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag, Vol. 41, No. 6, 791-800, Jun. 1993.
doi:10.1109/8.250455

7. Morabito, A. F. and P. Rocca, "Optimal synthesis of sum and difference patterns with arbitrary sidelobes subject to common excitations constraints," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 9, 623-626, 2010.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2010.2053832

8. Ares, F., S. R. Rengarajan, J. A. Rodriguez, and E. Moreno, "Optimal compromise among sum and difference patterns," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 10, 1143-1555, 1996.

9. Lopez, P., J. A. Rodriguez, F. Ares, and E. Moreno, "Subarray weighting for difference patterns of monopulse antennas: Joint optimization of subarray configurations and weights," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 49, No. 11, 1606-1608, Nov. 2001.
doi:10.1109/8.964098

10. Caorsi, S., A. Massa, M. Pastorino, and A. Randazzo, "Optimization of the difference patterns for monopulse antennas by a hybrid real/integer-coded differential evolution method," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 53, No. 1, 372-376, Jan. 2005.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.838788

11. D'Urso, M., T. Isernia, and E. F. Meliado', "An effective hybrid approach for the optimal synthesis of monopulse antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 55, No. 4, 1059-1066, Apr. 2007.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.893374

12. Rocca, P., L. Manica, A. Martini, and A. Massa, "Synthesis of large monopulse linear arrays through a tree-based optimal excitations matching," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 6, 436-439, 2007.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2007.906298

13. Chen, Y., S. Yang, and Z. Nie, "The application of a modified differential evolution strategy to some array pattern synthesis problems," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 7, 1919-1927, Jul. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.924713

14. Manica, L., P. Rocca, and A. Massa, "On the synthesis of sub-arrayed planar array antennas for tracking radar applications," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 7, 599-602, 2008.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2000787

15. Manica, L., P. Rocca, and A. Massa, "An excitation matching procedure for sub-arrayed monopulse arrays with maximum directivity," IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, Vol. 3, No. 1, 42-48, Feb. 2009.
doi:10.1049/iet-rsn:20070176

16. Rocca, P., L. Manica, and A. Massa, "Directivity optimization in planar sub-arrayed monopulse antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 4, 1-7, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERL08042601

17. Rocca, P., L. Manica, M. Pastorino, and A. Massa, "Boresight slope optimization of sub-arrayed linear arrays through the contiguous partition method," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., Vol. 8, 253-257, 2008.

18. Manica, L., P. Rocca, A. Martini, and A. Massa, "An innovative approach based on a tree-searching algorithm for the optimal matching of independently optimum sum and difference excitations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 1, 58-66, Jan. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.913037

19. Manica, L., P. Rocca, M. Benedetti, and A. Massa, "A fast graph-searching algorithm enabling the efficient synthesis of sub-arrayed planar monopulse antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 3, 652-663, Mar. 2009.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2013423

20. Dorigo, M., V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, "Ant system: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents," IEEE Trans. Syst. Man and Cybern. B, Vol. 26, No. 1, 29-41, Feb. 1996.
doi:10.1109/3477.484436

21. Rocca, P., L. Manica, F. Stringari, and A. Massa, "Ant colony optimization for tree-searching based synthesis of monopulse array antenna," Electron. Lett., Vol. 44, No. 13, 783-785, Jun. 2008.
doi:10.1049/el:20081045

22. Rocca, P., L. Manica, and A. Massa, "An improved excitation matching method based on an ant colony optimization for suboptimal-free clustering in sum-difference compromise synthesis," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 8, 2297-2306, Aug. 2009.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2024489

23. Fisher, W. D., "On grouping of maximum homogeneity," American Statistical Journal, 789-798, Dec. 1958.
doi:10.2307/2281952

24. Elliott, R. S., Antenna Theory and Design, IEEE Press, Wiley-Interscience, 2003.
doi:10.1109/9780470544174

25. Rocca, P., M. Benedetti, M. Donelli, D. Franceschini, and A. Massa, "Evolutionary optimization as applied to inverse scattering problems," Inverse Problems, Vol. 25, 1-41, 2009.

26. Rocca, P., L. Manica, and A. Massa, "Synthesis of monopulse antennas through the iterative contiguous partition method," Electron. Lett., Vol. 43, No. 16, 854-856, Aug. 2007.
doi:10.1049/el:20071336

27. Rocca, P., L. Manica, A. Martini, and A. Massa, "Compromise sum-difference optimization through the iterative contiguous partition method," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagat., Vol. 3, No. 2, 348-361, 2009.
doi:10.1049/iet-map:20070119

28. Rocca, P., L. Manica, and A. Massa, "An effective matching method for the synthesis of optimal compromise between sum and difference patterns in planar arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 3, 115-130, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERB07120403

29. Rocca, P., L. Manica, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, "A hybrid approach for the synthesis of sub-arrayed monopulse linear arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 57, No. 1, 280-283, Jan. 2009.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.2009776

30. Bucci, O., M. D'Urso, and T. Isernia, "Optimal synthesis of difference patterns subject to arbitrary sidelobe bounds by using arbitrary array antennas," IEE Proc. Microwaves Antennas Propag., Vol. 152, No. 3, 129-137, Jun. 2005.
doi:10.1049/ip-map:20045073