In this paper propagation losses of body implanted antennas are studied at the ISM bands of 433 MHz, 915 MHz, 2450 MHz and 5800 MHz. Two body models are used, one based on a single equivalent layer and the other based on a three layer structure, showing the advantages and limitations of each one. Firstly, the antenna pair gain at different implanted antenna depths is analyzed. Next, we show the effects of the thickness of the different body tissue layers. Finally, we discuss the consequences of using a coating layer to isolate the antenna from the harsh environment of the human body.
1. Greatbatch, W. and C. F. Holmes, "History of implantable devices," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 3, 38-41, September 1991. doi:10.1109/51.84185
2. Zoll, P., "Resuscitation of the heart in ventricular standstill by external stimulation," New Eng. J. Med., 1952.
3. Panescu, D., "Emerging technologies: Wireless communication systems for implantable medical devices," IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Vol. 27, No. 2, 96-101, March-April 2008. doi:10.1109/EMB.2008.915488
4. Chou, H. H., H. T. Hsu, H. T. Chou, K. H. Liu, and F. Y. Kuo, "Reduction of peak SAR in human head for handset applications with resistive sheets (r-cards)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 281-296, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09062702
5. Wei, X., K. Saito, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, "Performance of an implanted cavity slot antenna embedded in the human arm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 894-899, April 2009.
6. Haga, N., K. Saito, M. Takahashi, and K. Ito, "Characteristics of cavity slot antenna for body-area networks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 837-843, April 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2014577
7. Ito, K., X.Wei, M. Takahashi, and K. Saito, "An implanted cavity slot antenna for medical communication systems," 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 718-721, March 23-27, 2009.
8. Jaehoon, K. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Implanted antennas inside a human body: Simulations, design, and characterization," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 8, 1934-1943, August 2004. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832018
9. Jaehoon, Kim and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Planar inverted-F antennas on implanted medical devices: Meandered type versus spiral type," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 48, No. 3, 567-572, 2006. doi:10.1002/mop.21409
10. Karacolak, T., A. Z. Hood, and E. Topsakal, "Design of a dual band implantable antenna and development of skin mimicking gels for continuous glucose monitoring," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 4, 1001-1008, April 2008. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.919373
11. Yilmaz, T., T. Karacolak, and E. Topsakal, "Characterization and testing of a skin mimicking material for implantable antennas operating at ISM band (2.4 GHz-2.48 GHz)," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 7, 418-420, 2008. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2001736
12. Chow, E. Y., C.-L. Yang, A. Chlebowski, S. Moon, W. J. Chappell, and P. P. Irazoqui, "Implantable wireless telemetry boards for in vivo transocular transmission," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 12, 3200-3208, December 2008. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.2007338
13. Karacolak, T., R. Cooper, and E. Topsakal, "Electrical properties of rat skin and design of implantable antennas for medical wireless telemetry," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2806-2812, September 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2027197
14. Christopoulou, M., M. Koulouridis, and K. S. Nikita, "Parametric study of power absorption patterns induced in adult and child head models by small helical antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 49-67, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09031305
15. Xu, L., M. Q.-H. Meng, H. Ren, and Y. Chan, "Radiation characteristics of ingestible wireless devices in human intestine following radio frequency exposure at 430, 800, 1200, and 2400 MHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 8, 2418-2428, August 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2024459
16. Manapati, M. B. and R. S. Kshetrimayum, "SAR reduction in human head from mobile phone radiation using single negative metamaterials," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, 1385-1395, 2009. doi:10.1163/156939309789108606
17. Liu, Y., Z. Liang, and Z. Yang, "Computation of electromagnetic dosimetry for human body using parallel FDTD algorithm combined with interpolation technique," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 82, 95-107, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08021603
18. Islam, M. T., M. R. I. Faruque, and N. Misran, "Design analysis of ferrite sheet attachment for SAR reduction in human head," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 98, 191-205, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09082902
19. Mohsin, S. A., N. M. Sheikh, and W. Abbas, "MRI induced heating of artificial bone implants," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 5-6, 799-808, 2009. doi:10.1163/156939309788019796
20. Hirata, A., H. Sugiyama, and O. Fujiwara, "Estimation of core temperature elevation in humans and animals for whole-body averaged SAR," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 99, 53-70, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09101603
21. Chen, W. S. and B. Y. Lee, "Novel printed monopole antenna for PDA phone and WLAN applications," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, 2073-2088, 2009. doi:10.1163/156939309789932557
22. Lin, J., H. Wu, Y. Su, L. Gao, A. Sugavanam, J. Brewer, and K. O. Kenneth, "Communication using antennas fabricated in silicon integrated circuits," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 42, No. 8, 1678-1687, 2007. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2007.900236
23. Feko Software, www.feko.info.
24. Federal Communications Commissions: Body tissue dielectric parameters, http://www.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety/dielectric.html, C. Gabriel, "Compilation of the dielectric properties of body tissues at RF and microwave frequencies,", Report N.AL/OE-TR-1996-0037, Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate, Radiofrequency Radiation Division, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, USA, June 1996.
25., "Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Supplement C: Additional information for evaluating compliance of mobile and portable devices with FCC limits for human exposure to radiofre-quency emissions," Federal Communications Commission Office of Engineering and Technology, June 2001.
26. Schmid and Partner Engineering AG (SPEAG), www.speag.com.
27. Christ, A., T. Samaras, A. Klingenbock, and N. Kuster, "Characterization of the electromagnetic near-field absorption in layered biological tissue in the frequency range from 30MHz to 6000 MHz," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 51, 4951-4965, 2006. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/51/19/014
28. Chen, G. and Z. Zhao, "Ultrasound tomography-guide TRM technique for breast tumor detecting in mitat system," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, 1459-1471, 2010. doi:10.1163/156939310792149650
29. Merli, F., B. Fuchs, and A. K. Skrivervik, "Influence of insulation for implanted antennas," 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 196-199, March 2009.