The design of a thin tunable and steerable Fabry-Perot antenna is presented. The subwavelength structure is analyzed both by an efficient transmission line model and by full-wave simulations. The tunable antenna consists of a low profile resonant cavity made up of a Partially Reflecting Surface (PRS) placed in close proximity of a tunable high-impedance surface. The active ground plane is synthesized by loading the high-impedance surface with varactor diodes. Such design allows both tuning the high-gain operational frequency and obtaining a beam steering/shaping for each resonant frequency. The transmission line model here presented includes averaged analytical expressions for modelling the tunable high-impedance surface and the frequency selective surfaces. All the theoretical speculations are verified by full-wave simulations on a finite size structure.
2. Lovat, G., P. Burghignoli, and D. R. Jackson, "Fundamental properties and optimization of broadside radiation from uniform leaky-wave antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 54, 1442-1452, May 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.874350
3. Neto, A. and N. Llombart, "Wideband localization of the dominant leaky wave poles in dielectric covered antennas," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 5, No. 1, 549-551, Dec. 2006. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2006.889558
4. Swillam, M. A., R. H. Gohary, M. H. Bakr, and X. Li, "Efficient approach for sensitivity analysis of lossy and leaky structures using FDTD," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 197-212, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09061708
5. Kim, D. and J.-I. Choi, "Analysis of a high-gain Fabry-Perot cavity antenna with an FSS superstrate: Effective medium approach," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 7, 59-68, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIERL09011801
6. Sternberg, N. and A. I. Smolyakov, "Resonant transparency of a three-layer structure containing the dense plasma region," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 99, 37-52, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09091708
7. Jackson, D. R. and A. A. Oliner, "A leaky-wave analysis of the high gain printed antenna configuration," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 36, No. 7, 905-910, 1988. doi:10.1109/8.7194
8. Feresidis, A. P., G. Goussetis, S. Wang, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "Artificial magnetic conductor surfaces and their application to low profile high-gain planar antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 53, No. 1, 209-215, Jan. 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.840528
9. Yousefi, L., H. Attia, and O. M. Ramahi, "Broadband experimental characterization of artificial magnetic materials based on a microstrip line method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 90, 1-13, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER08121904
10. Zhou, L., H. Li, Y. Qin, Z. Wei, and C. T. Chan, "Directive emissions from subwavelength metamaterial-based cavities," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, 101101, Feb. 2005. doi:10.1063/1.1881797
11. Kelly, J. R., T. Kokkinos, and A. P. Feresidis, "Analysis and design of sub-wavelength resonant cavity type 2-D leaky-wave antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 9, 2817-2825, 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.928791
12. Zhao, J., Y. C. Jiao, F. Zhang, and X. Yang, "High gain circularly polarized antenna using sub-wavelength resonant cavity," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 1, 33-40, 2010. doi:10.1163/156939310790322109
13. Costa, F., A. Monorchio, S. Talarico, and F. M. Valeri, "An active high impedance surface for low profile tunable and steerable antennas," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 7, 676-680, 2008. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2008.2006070
14. Luukkonen, O., C. R. Simovski, A. V. Räisänen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "An efficient and simple analytical model for analysis of propagation properties in impedance waveguides," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 7, 1624-1632, 2008. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.925236
15. Weily, A. R., T. S. Bird, and Y. J. Guo, "A reconfigurable high-gain partially reflecting surface antenna," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 11, 3382-3390, Nov. 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.2005538
16. Costa, F., E. Carrubba, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, "Multi-frequency highly directive Fabry-Perot based antenna," Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, 4-8, San Diego, CA, 2009.
17. Aydın, E., "Computation of a tunable slot-loaded equilateral triangular microstrip antenna," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 14-15, 2001-2009, 2009. doi:10.1163/156939309789932548
18. Wu, X. H., A. A. Kishk, and A. W. Glisson, "A transmission line method to compute the far-field radiation of arbitrarily directed Hertzian dipoles in multilayer dielectric structure: Theory and applications," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 10, 2731-2741, 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.882164
19. Luukkonen, O., C. Simovski, G. Granet, G. Goussetis, D. Lioubtchenko, A. V. Räisänen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Simple and accurate analytical model of planar grids and high-impedance surfaces comprising metal strips or patches," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 6, 1624-1632, 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.923327
20. Zhao, T., D. R. Jackson, J. T. Williams, H. D. Yang, and A. A. Oliner, "2-D periodic leaky-wave antennas --- Part I: Metal patch design," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 11, 3505-3514, 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2005.858579
22. Costa, F., A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, "Analysis and design of ultra thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 5, 1551-1558, 2010. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2044329
23. Vu, T.-H., S. Collardey, A.-C. Tarot, and K. Mahdjoubi, "Input impedance of Fabry-Perot, EBG and leaky-wave antennas excited by a line source," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 248-252, 2009. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2013883
24. Pirhadi, A., M. Hakkak, and F. Keshmiri, "Using electromagnetic bandgap superstrate to enhance the bandwidth of probe-fed microstrip antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 61, 215-230, 2006. doi:10.2528/PIER06021801
25. Zhang, J. C., Y. Z. Yin, and S. F. Zheng, "Double screen FSSs with multi-resonant elements for multiband, broadband applications," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 16, 2209-2218, 2009. doi:10.1163/156939309790109333
26. Zhang, J.-C., Y.-Z. Yin, and J.-P. Ma, "Design of narrow band-pass frequency selective surfaces for millimeter wave applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 96, 287-298, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09081702
27. Schantz, H. G., "Planar elliptical element ultra-wideband dipole antennas," IEEE AP-S Int. Symp. Dig., Vol. 3, 44-47, San Antonio, TX, Jun. 2002.
28. Costa, F., A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, "Low-profile tunable and steerable Fabry-Perot antenna for software defined radio applications," IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propag., Toronto, Canada, Jul. 11-17, 2010.
30. Jorswieck, E. A. and R. Mochaourab, "Beamforming in underlay cognitive radio: Null-shaping constraints and greedy user selection," Proc. CROWNCOM, 2010, 5th international Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, 1-5, 2010.