Recent years, a new SAR concept based on Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) configuration has demonstrated the potential advantages to simultaneously improve the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging and ground moving target detection by utilizing multiple antennas both at transmission and reception. However, the precise signal model, as well as the effect of ground moving target in image domain and the approaches for moving target indication based on MIMO SAR system are rarely investigated. Our paper has three main contributions. Firstly, we present a detailed signal model for stationary scene and moving target based on a colocated MIMO SAR system, and analyze the motion effect of the moving target. Secondly, we provide an algorithm of phase compensation to combine the multiple virtual channel data in order to enhance the image quality. Thirdly, an adaptive optimal approach is applied for clutter suppression, then the velocity of the moving target is estimated via Delay-and-Sum (DAS) beamforming approach. Finally, several numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the derivation and analysis in this paper.
1. Li, J. , P. Stoica, and , "MIMO radar with colocated antennas," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 5, 106-114, 2007. doi:10.1109/MSP.2007.904812
2. Haimovich, , A. M., , S. Blum, and L. J. Cimini, "MIMO radar with widely separated antennas," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 1, 116-129, 2008. doi:10.1109/MSP.2008.4408448
3. Qu, , Y., , G. Liao, S.-Q. Zhu, X.-Y. Liu, and H. Jiang, "Performance analysis of beamforming for MIMO radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 123-134, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08062306
4. Lim, , S. H., "Shifting MIMO SAR system for high-resolution wide-swath imaging ," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications,, Vol. 25, No. 8--9, 1168-1178, 2011. doi:10.1163/156939311795762114
5. Chen, , H.-W., , X. Li, J. Yang, W. Zhou, and Z. Zhuang, "Effects of geometry configurations on ambiguity properties for bistatic MIMO radar ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 30, 117-133, 2011.
6. Hatam, , M., , A. Sheikhi, and M. A. Masnadi-Shirazi, "Target detection in pulse-train MIMO radars applying ICA algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 413-435, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER11101206
7. Chen, , J., , Z. Li, and C. S. Li, "A novel strategy for topside ionosphere sounder based on spaceborne MIMO radar with FDCD ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 381-393, 2011.
8. Krieger, , G., , N. Gebert, and A. Moreira, "Multidimensional waveform encoding: A new digital beamforming technique for synthetic aperture radar remote sensing, ," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 46, No. 1, 31-46, 2008. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.905974
9. Li, , J., , S. S. Zhang, and J. F. Chang, "Applications of compressed sensing for multiple transmitters multiple azimuth beams SAR imaging ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research , Vol. 127, 259-275, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER12021307
10. Das, A., , R. Cobb, and M. Stallard, "TechSat 21: A revolutionary concept in distributed space based sensing," AIAA Defense and Civil Space Programs Conference and Exhibit., 28-30, 1998.
11. Xu, , W., P. Huang, and Y.-K. Deng, "Multi-channel SPCMB-tops SAR for high-resolution wide-swath imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 533-551, 2011.
12. Xu, , W., P. P. Huang, and Y. K. Deng, "MIMO-tops mode for high-resolution ultra-wide-swath full polarimetric imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 19-37, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11030209
13. Zhou, , W., H. W. Chen, K. L. Li, and X. Li, "A novel algorithm for MIMO SAR imaging," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications,, Vol. 26, No. 8, 1082-1094, 2012. doi:10.1080/09205071.2012.710529
14. Wang, , W. Q., "Space-time coding MIMO-OFDM SAR for high-resolution imaging," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 49, No. 8, 3094-3104, 2011. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2116030
15. Ender, , J., "MIMO-SAR," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium,, 5310-5314, 2007.
16. Cristallini, , D. and D. Pastina, "Exploiting MIMO SAR potentialities with e±cient cross-track constellation confiurations for improved range resolution," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing,, Vol. 49, No. 1, 38-52, 2010. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2010.2053715
17. Kim, , J., "Investigation of MIMO SAR for interferometry," Proceedings of the 4th European Radar Conference,, 51-54, 2007. doi:10.1109/EURAD.2007.4404934
18. Friedlander, B., "MIMO-VSAR: A high resolution radar system for imaging moving scenes," The 44th Asilomar Conference on Signals Systems and Computer,, 2143-2147, 2010.
19. Dai, , X. Z., J. Xu, Y. N. Peng, and Y. L. Wang, "MIMO-VSAR and a kind of optimized array configuration," Acta Electronica Sinica, Vol. 36, No. 12, 2394-2399, 2008.
20. Brenner, A. R. and J. Ender, "Demonstration of advanced reconnaissance techniques with the airborne SAR/GMTI sensor PAMIR ," IEE Proceeding --- Radar, Sonar and Navigation, Vol. 153, No. 2, 152-162, 2006. doi:10.1049/ip-rsn:20050044
21. Klare, , J., "MIRA-CLE X: A new imaging MIMO-radar for multi-purpose applications," Proceedings of the 7th European Radar Conference, 2010.
22. Kantor, J. and S. K.Davis, Airborne GMTI Using MIMO Techniques, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, , Lexington, MA, Tech. Rep. TR-1150, 2011.
23. Li, , S. F., , J. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, and Y. Q.Zhou, "Complete complementary sequence for MIMO SAR," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 13, 51-66, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIERC10032104
24. Huang, , Y. and P. V. Brennan, "FMCW based MIMO imaging radar for maritime navigaiton," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 327-342, 2011.
25. Roberts, W., , H. He, J. Li, and P. Stoica, "Probing waveform synthesis and receiver filters design," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine,, Vol. 27, No. 4, 99-112, 2010. doi:10.1109/MSP.2010.936724
26. Cumming, , I. G., F. H. Wong, and , Digital Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Algorithms and Implementation, Artech House, 2005.
27. Friedlander, B. and B. Porat, "VSAR: A high-resolution radar system for a high resolution radar system for detection of moving targets," IET Radar Sonar and Navigation,, Vol. 144, No. 4, 205-218, 1997. doi:10.1049/ip-rsn:19971309
28. Xu, , J., , G. Li, Y. N. Peng, X. G. Xia, and Y. L. Wang, "Parametric velocity synthetic aperture radar: Signal modeling and optimal methods," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing,, Vol. 46, No. 9, 2463-2480, 2010.
29. Franceschetti, , G., , A. Iodice, S. Perna, and D. Riccio, "Effcient simulation of airborne SAR raw data of extended scenes," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 44, No. 10, 2851-2860, 2006. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.875786
30. Chan, Y. K. and V. C. Koo, "An introduction to synthetic aperture radar (SAR)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B , Vol. 2, 27-60, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB07110101
31. Klemm, , R., Principles of Space-time Adaptive Processing, 3rd Ed., IET Radar, Sonar, Navigation and Avionics Series 21, 2006. doi:10.1049/PBRA021E
32. Yardibi, , T., , J. Li, P. Stoica, M. Xue, and A. B. Baggeroer, "Source localization and sensing: A nonparametric iterative adaptive approach based on weighted least squares ," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 46, 425-443, 2010. doi:10.1109/TAES.2010.5417172