Vol. 137
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIER 176 [2023] PIER 175 [2022] PIER 174 [2022] PIER 173 [2022] PIER 172 [2021] PIER 171 [2021] PIER 170 [2021] PIER 169 [2020] PIER 168 [2020] PIER 167 [2020] PIER 166 [2019] PIER 165 [2019] PIER 164 [2019] PIER 163 [2018] PIER 162 [2018] PIER 161 [2018] PIER 160 [2017] PIER 159 [2017] PIER 158 [2017] PIER 157 [2016] PIER 156 [2016] PIER 155 [2016] PIER 154 [2015] PIER 153 [2015] PIER 152 [2015] PIER 151 [2015] PIER 150 [2015] PIER 149 [2014] PIER 148 [2014] PIER 147 [2014] PIER 146 [2014] PIER 145 [2014] PIER 144 [2014] PIER 143 [2013] PIER 142 [2013] PIER 141 [2013] PIER 140 [2013] PIER 139 [2013] PIER 138 [2013] PIER 137 [2013] PIER 136 [2013] PIER 135 [2013] PIER 134 [2013] PIER 133 [2013] PIER 132 [2012] PIER 131 [2012] PIER 130 [2012] PIER 129 [2012] PIER 128 [2012] PIER 127 [2012] PIER 126 [2012] PIER 125 [2012] PIER 124 [2012] PIER 123 [2012] PIER 122 [2012] PIER 121 [2011] PIER 120 [2011] PIER 119 [2011] PIER 118 [2011] PIER 117 [2011] PIER 116 [2011] PIER 115 [2011] PIER 114 [2011] PIER 113 [2011] PIER 112 [2011] PIER 111 [2011] PIER 110 [2010] PIER 109 [2010] PIER 108 [2010] PIER 107 [2010] PIER 106 [2010] PIER 105 [2010] PIER 104 [2010] PIER 103 [2010] PIER 102 [2010] PIER 101 [2010] PIER 100 [2010] PIER 99 [2009] PIER 98 [2009] PIER 97 [2009] PIER 96 [2009] PIER 95 [2009] PIER 94 [2009] PIER 93 [2009] PIER 92 [2009] PIER 91 [2009] PIER 90 [2009] PIER 89 [2009] PIER 88 [2008] PIER 87 [2008] PIER 86 [2008] PIER 85 [2008] PIER 84 [2008] PIER 83 [2008] PIER 82 [2008] PIER 81 [2008] PIER 80 [2008] PIER 79 [2008] PIER 78 [2008] PIER 77 [2007] PIER 76 [2007] PIER 75 [2007] PIER 74 [2007] PIER 73 [2007] PIER 72 [2007] PIER 71 [2007] PIER 70 [2007] PIER 69 [2007] PIER 68 [2007] PIER 67 [2007] PIER 66 [2006] PIER 65 [2006] PIER 64 [2006] PIER 63 [2006] PIER 62 [2006] PIER 61 [2006] PIER 60 [2006] PIER 59 [2006] PIER 58 [2006] PIER 57 [2006] PIER 56 [2006] PIER 55 [2005] PIER 54 [2005] PIER 53 [2005] PIER 52 [2005] PIER 51 [2005] PIER 50 [2005] PIER 49 [2004] PIER 48 [2004] PIER 47 [2004] PIER 46 [2004] PIER 45 [2004] PIER 44 [2004] PIER 43 [2003] PIER 42 [2003] PIER 41 [2003] PIER 40 [2003] PIER 39 [2003] PIER 38 [2002] PIER 37 [2002] PIER 36 [2002] PIER 35 [2002] PIER 34 [2001] PIER 33 [2001] PIER 32 [2001] PIER 31 [2001] PIER 30 [2001] PIER 29 [2000] PIER 28 [2000] PIER 27 [2000] PIER 26 [2000] PIER 25 [2000] PIER 24 [1999] PIER 23 [1999] PIER 22 [1999] PIER 21 [1999] PIER 20 [1998] PIER 19 [1998] PIER 18 [1998] PIER 17 [1997] PIER 16 [1997] PIER 15 [1997] PIER 14 [1996] PIER 13 [1996] PIER 12 [1996] PIER 11 [1995] PIER 10 [1995] PIER 09 [1994] PIER 08 [1994] PIER 07 [1993] PIER 06 [1992] PIER 05 [1991] PIER 04 [1991] PIER 03 [1990] PIER 02 [1990] PIER 01 [1989]
2013-02-28
The Influence of Human Head Model Wearing Metal-Frame Spectacles to the Changes of SAR and Antenna Gain: Simulation of Frontal Face Exposure
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 137, 453-473, 2013
Abstract
The relationship between specific absorption rate (SAR) and antenna gain inside the head due to the metal-frame spectacles was investigated. The radio frequency (RF) energy source considered is the smartphone used in the frontal face. A computer simulation using CST Microwave Studio 2012 was used for the investigation. Two sets of dipole antennas, operated at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz for GSM applications, were used as representative radiation sources from a mobile phone. Parametric studies were conducted to determine the optimum length of the metal rod, and the length was used to study the possibility of RF irradiation of the metal spectacles model. Then, the spectacles model was used as an analysis tool to study the interaction between gain and SAR in the head. The radiation pattern was plotted to identify the causes of the interactions. The gain decreased when the energy source was very close to the spectacles, and SAR increased enormously.
Citation
Mohd Hafizuddin Mat Mohd Fareq Bin Abd Malek William G. Whittow Suzanna Harun Ronald Muhammad Solihin Zulkefli Norshafinash Saudin Latifah Mohamed , "The Influence of Human Head Model Wearing Metal-Frame Spectacles to the Changes of SAR and Antenna Gain: Simulation of Frontal Face Exposure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 137, 453-473, 2013.
doi:10.2528/PIER13013006
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=13013006
References

1. Cooper, J. and V. Hombach, "Increase in specific absorption rate in humans from implantations," Electron. Lett., Vol. 32, No. 24, 1996.
doi:10.1049/el:19961507

2. Whittow, W. G. and R. M. Edwards, "A study of changes to specific absorption rates in the human eye close to perfectly conducting spectacles within the radio frequency range 1.5 to 3.0 GHz," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 12, 3207-3212, Dec. 2004.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.836417

3. Stergiou, K., C. Panagamuwa, W. Whittow, and R. Edwards, "Effects of metallic semi-rimmed spectacles on SAR in the head from a 900MHz frontal dipole source," 2009 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 721-724, Nov. 16-17, 2009.

4. Whittow, W. G., R. M. Edwards, C. J. Panagamuwa, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "Effect of tongue jewelery and orthodontist metallic braces on the SAR due to mobile phones in different anatomical human head models including children," 2008 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 293-296, Mar. 17-18, 2008.

5. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, "SAR distribution and temperature increase in an anatomical model of the human eye exposed to the field radiated by the user antenna in a wireless LAN," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 46, No. 12, 2074-2082, Dec. 1998.
doi:10.1109/22.739285

6. Mat, M. H., M. F. B. A. Malek, S. I. Syed Hassan, M. S. Zulkefli, and S. H. Ronald, "Correlation analysis on the specific absorption rate (SAR) between metallic spectacle and pins exposed from radiation sources," PIERS Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Mar. 27-30, 2012.

7. Dimbylow, P. J. and S. M. Mann, "SAR calculations in an anatomically realistic model of the head for mobile communication transceivers at 900-MHz and 1.8-GHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 39, No. 10, 1537-1553, 1994.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/39/10/003

8. Lopez-Furelos, A., M. D. M. Mi~nana-Maiques, J. M. Leiro-Vidal, J. A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F. J. Ares-Pena, and E. Lopez-Martin, "An experimental multi-frequency system for studying dosimetry and acute e®ects on cell and nuclear morphology in rat tissues," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 541-558, 2012.

9. Cooper, J. and V. Hombach, "The specific absorption rate in a spherical head model from dipole with metallic walls nearby," IEEE Trans. Electromagnet. Compat., Vol. 40, No. 4, 377-382, Nov. 1998.
doi:10.1109/15.736225

10. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, and S. Pisa, "Evaluation of the SAR distribution in the human head for cellular phones used in a partially closed environment," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 38, No. 3, 357-366, Aug. 1996.
doi:10.1109/15.536066

11. Panagamuwa, C. J., W. G. Whittow, R. M. Edwards, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "A study of the effects of metallic pins on SAR using a specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head phantom," 2007 European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-6, Nov. 11-16,2007.

12. Fung, L. C., S. W. Leung, and K. H. Chan, "An investigation of the SAR reduction methods in mobile phone applications," 2002 IEEE International Symposium on EMC, Vol. 2, 656-660, Aug. 2002.

13. Mahmoud, K. R., M. El-Adawy, S. M. M. Ibrahem, R. Bansal, and S. H. Zainud-Deen, "Investigating the interaction between a human head and a smart handset for 4 g mobile communication systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 2, 169-188, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERC08032405

14. Nikita, K. S., M. Cavagnaro, P. Bernardi, N. K. Uzunoglu, S. Pisa, E. Piuzzi, J. N. Sahalos, G. I. Krikelas, J. A. Vaul, P. S. Excell, G. Cerri, S. Chiarandini, R. De Leo, and P. Russo, "A study of uncertainties in modeling antenna performance and power absorption in the head of a cellular phone user," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 48, No. 12, 2676-2685, Dec. 2000.
doi:10.1109/22.899030

15. Jung, M. and B. Lee, "SAR reduction for mobile phones based on analysis of EM absorbing material characteristics," 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2, 1017-1020, Jun. 2003.

16. Manapati, M. B. and R. S. Kshetrimayum, "SAR reduction in human head from mobile phone radiation using single negative metamaterials," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1385-1395, 2009.
doi:10.1163/156939309789108606

17. Chou, H.-H., H.-T. Hsu, H.-T. Chou, K.-H. Liu, and F.-Y. Kuo, "Reduction of peak SAR in human head for handset applications with resistive sheets (R-CARDS)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 281-296, 2009.
doi:10.2528/PIER09062702

18. Zhang, M. and A. Alden, "Calculation of whole-body SAR from a 00MHz dipole antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 133-153, 2011.
doi:10.2528/PIER11052005

19. Mohsin, S. A., "Concentration of the specific absorption rate around deep brain stimulation electrodes during MRI," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 469-484, 2011.
doi:10.2528/PIER11022402

20. Cole, K. S. and R. H. Cole, "Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics: I. Alternating current characteristics," Journal of Chemical Physics, 341-351, Apr. 1941.
doi:10.1063/1.1750906

21. Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, Wiley-Interscience and IEEE Press Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory, 1993.

22. Sullivan, D. M., Electromagnetic Simulation Using the FDTD Method, IEEE Press Series on RF and Microwave Technology, 2000.

23. Lancellotti, V., B. P. de Hon, and A. G. Tijhuis, "Scattering from large 3-D piecewise homogeneous bodies through linear embedding via Green's operators and Arnoldi basis functions," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 305-322, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIER10032915

24. Mohsin, S. A., "A simple EM model for determining the scattered magnetic resonance radiofrequency field of an implanted medical device," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 14, 1-14, 2010.
doi:10.2528/PIERM10043006

25. Amjad, A., R. Kamondetdacha, A. V. Kildishev, S. M. Park, and J. A. Nyenhuis, "Power deposition inside a phantom for testing of MRI heating," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 41, 4185-4187, 2005.
doi:10.1109/TMAG.2005.854840

26. Mohsin, S. A., N. M. Sheikh, and U. Saeed, "MRI induced heating of deep brain stimulation leads: Effect of the air-tissue interface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 81-91, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIER08040504

27. , , , CST User Interface for Hugo Human Body Model, [online] available: http://www.cst.com/Content/Applications/Article/HUGO +Human+Body+Model.
doi:10.2528/PIERC10041805

28. , , , Data sheet, Federal Communication Commission, [online], www.fcc.gov/fcc-bin/dielec.sh-09/2002.

29. Mohsin, S. A., J. Nyenhuis, and R. Masood, "Interaction of medical implants with the MRI electromagnetic fields," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 13, 195-202, 2010.

30. , , , CST Microwave Studio in CST Studio Suite 2011 User's Manual, www.cst.com.

31. Mat, M. H., M. F. Malek., S. H. Ronald, and M. S. Zulkefli, "Effects of the metallic spectacles with braces added on specific absorption rate (SAR) exposed to frontal radiation sources," 2011 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 1-4, Nov. 14-15, 2011.

32. Mat, M. H., M. F. B. A. Malek, A. Omar, M. S. Zulkefli, and S. H. Ronald, "Analysis of the correlation between antenna gain and SAR levels inside the human head model at 900 MHz," 2012 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 513-516, May 21-24, 2012.

33. Mat, M. H., F. Malek, S. H. Ronald, and M. S. Zulkefli, "A comparative study of simple geometrical head phantoms on speci¯c absorption rates for simulations and measurements at 900 MHz," 2012 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICoBE), 330-334, Feb. 27-28, 2012.

34. Catarinucci, L. and L. Tarricone, "New algorithms for the specific absorption rate numerical evaluation based on spherical averaging volumes," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 427-445, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIERB11091514

35. Gangwar, R. K., S. P. Singh, and D. Kumar, "SAR distribution in a bio-medium in close proximity with rectangular dielectric resonator antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 31, 157-173, 2011.

36. Ikeuchi, R., K. H. Chan, and A. Hirata, "SAR and radiation characteristics of a dipole antenna above different finite EBG substrates in the presence of a realistic head model in the 3.5 GHz band," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 53-70, 2012.

37. Montaser, A. M., K. R. Mahmoud, and H. A. Elmikati, "An interaction study between pifas handset antenna and a human hand-head in personal communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 37, 21-42, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11112301

38. Andujar, A., J. Anguera, C. Picher, and C. Puente, "Human head interaction over ground plane booster antenna technology: Functional and biological analysis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 41, 153-185, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIERB11082511

39. Otin, R., "Numerical study of the thermal effects induced by a RFID antenna in vials of blood plasma," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 22, 129-138, 2011.

40. Faruque, M. R. I., M. T. Islam, and N. Misran, "Design analysis of new metamaterial for EM absorption reduction," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 119-135, 2012.

41. Yanase, K. and A. Hirata, "Effective resistance of grounded humans for whole-body averaged SAR estimation at resonance frequencie," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 35, 15-27, 2011.
doi:10.2528/PIER10110102

42. Wang, J., Z. Zhao, J. Song, X. Zhu, Z.-P. Nie, and Q. H. Liu, "Reconstruction of microwave absorption properties in heterogeneous tissue for microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 130, 225-240, 2012.

43. Mat, M. H., M. F. Abd Malek, M. S. Zulkefli, and H. R. Suzanna, "Preliminary study of electromagnetic energy absorption in the head due to the exposure of radio frequency at 900 MHz," 2012 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Informatics (ISCI), 228-231, Mar. 18-20, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER12013108

44. AlShehri, S. A., S. Khatun, A. B. Jantan, R. S. A. Raja Abdullah, R. Mahmood, and Z. Awang, "Experimental breast tumor detection using nn-based UWB imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 447-465, 2011.

45. Otin, R. and H. Gromat, "Specific absorption rate computations with a nodal-based finite element formulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 399-418, 2012.

46. Golestanirad, L., A. P. Izquierdo, S. J. Graham, J. R. Mosig, and C. Pollo, "Effect of realistic modeling of deep brain stimulation on the prediction of volume of activated tissue," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 126, 1-16, 2012.

47. Islam, M. T., H. Z. Abidin, M. R. I. Faruque, and N. Misran, "Analysis of materials effects on radio frequency electromagnetic fields in human head," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 121-136, 2012.

48. Ibrani, M., L. Ahma, E. Hamiti, and J. Haxhibeqiri, "Derivation of electromagnetic properties of child biological tissues at radio frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 25, 87-100, 2011.