This work presents an evaluation of the measurement challenges in clinical testing of our microwave breast cancer screening system. The time-domain radar system contains a multistatic 16-antenna hemi-spherical array operating in the 2-4 GHz frequency range. We investigate, for the first time with such a system in clinical trials, the repeatability of measurements and its effect on image reconstruction. We record vertical and horizontal measurement uncertainties under different scenarios and verify, using previously introduced compensation methods, that they can be successfully reduced to an acceptable level from the standpoint of image reconstruction. We also examine how placement of an immersion medium can affect collected breast scan data. Finally, we probe the repeatability and consistency of measurements with patients. With the goal of confirming the feasibility of frequent breast health monitoring, with our system, we obtain a total of 342 breast scans collected over 57 patient visits to determine how much scan data varies when there are no changes in between scans, and how much it varies when the patient is repositioned in the system. We confirm that, by taking care in patient positioning in the system and with respect to the immersion medium, the measurement repeatability is high.
"Time-Domain Microwave Radar Applied to Breast Imaging: Measurement Reliability in a Clinical Setting," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 149, 119-132, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIER14080503
2. Karellas, A. and S. Vedantham, "Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade," Med. Phys., Vol. 35, No. 11, 4878-4897, Nov. 2008. doi:10.1109/MP.2003.1180933
3. Fear, E., P. Meaney, and M. Stuchly, "Microwaves for breast cancer detection?," IEEE Potentials, 12-18, Feb/Mar. 2003. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2165496
4. Amineh, R. K., M. Ravan, A. Khalatpour, and N. K. Nikolova, "Three-dimensional near-field microwave holography using reflected and transmitted signals," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., Vol. 59, No. 12, 4777-4789, 2011. doi:10.1109/TMI.2012.2197218
5. Grzegorczyk, T., P. M. Meaney, P. A. Kaufman, R. M. diFlorio-Alexander, and K. D. Paulsen, "Fast 3-D tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., Vol. 31, No. 8, 1584-1592, Aug. 2012.
6. Bourqui, J., J. M. Sill, and E. C. Fear, "A prototype system for measuring microwave frequency re°ections from the breast," International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, Vol. 2012, Article ID 851234, 1-12, 2012. doi:10.1118/1.1984349
7. Jiang, H., C. Li, D. Pearlstone, and L. Fajardo, "Ultrasound-guided microwave imaging of breast cancer: Tissue phantom and pilot clinical experiments," Med. Phys., Vol. 32, No. 8, 2528-2535, Aug. 2005.
8. Klemm, M., I. J. Craddock, J. A. Leendertz, A. Preece, D. R. Gibbins, M. Shere, and R. Benjamin, "Clinical trials of a UWB imaging radar for breast cancer," 2010 4th European Conference on Proc. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-4, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 12-16, 2010. doi:10.1109/TIM.2011.2141250
9. Zeng, X., A. Fhager, P. Linner, M. Persson, and H. Zirath, "Experimental investigation of the accuracy of an ultrawideband time-domain microwave-tomographic system," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 60, No. 12, 3939-3949, Dec. 2011.
10. Sabouni, A. and S. Noghanian, "The robustness of HGA/FDTD in the presence of noise for microwave breast cancer," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 1-4, Charleston, SC, United States, Jun. 1-5, 2009.
11. Zeng, X., A. Fhager, and M. Persson, "Effects of noise on tomographic breast imaging," General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI), 1-4, Istanbul, Turkey, Aug. 13-20, 2011.
12. Porter, E., A. Santorelli, and M. Popovie, "Measurement uncertainties in differential radar applied to breast imaging," Proc. 2014 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, 6-10, Queenstown, New Zealand, Feb. 18-20, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIERB13082207
13. Porter, E., E. Kirshin, A. Santorelli, and M. Popovic, "Microwave Breast Screening in the Time-Domain: Identi¯cation and Compensation of Measurement-Induced Uncertainties," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 55, 115-130, 2013.
14. Porter, E., A. Santorelli, and M. Popovic, "Time-domain microwave radar for breast screening: Initial testing with volunteers," Proc. 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), The Hague, The Netherlands, Apr. 6-11, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIER12091008
15. Santorelli, A., M. Chudzik, E. Kirshin, E. Porter, A. Lujambio, I. Arnedo, M. Popovic, and J. D. Schwartz, "Experimental demonstration of pulse shaping for time-domain microwave breast imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 133, 309-329, 2013. doi:10.2528/PIER08090701
16. Kanj, H. and M. Popovic, "A novel ultra-compact broadband antenna for microwave breast tumor detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 86, 169-198, 2008. doi:10.1109/TBME.2008.919716
17. Lim, H. B., N. T. T. Nhung, E. P. Li, and N. D. Thang, "Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: Delay-multiply-and-sum image reconstruction algorithm," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 55, No. 6, 1697-1704, Jun. 2008. doi:10.1109/TIP.2003.819861
18. Wang, Z., A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikhm, and E. P. Simoncelli, "Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity," IEEE Trans. Image Process., Vol. 13, No. 4, 600-612, Apr. 2004. doi:10.1109/42.730403
19. Penney, G., J. Weese, J. A. Little, P. Desmedt, D. L. G. Hill, and D. J. Hawkes, "A comparison of similarity measures for use in 2-D-3-D medical image registration," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., Vol. 17, No. 4, 586-595, Aug. 1998. doi:10.1016/S0167-8655(98)00115-9
20. Di Gesµu, V. and V. Starovoitov, "Distance-based functions for image comparison," Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 20, 207-214, 1999.