Vol. 159
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIER 176 [2023] PIER 175 [2022] PIER 174 [2022] PIER 173 [2022] PIER 172 [2021] PIER 171 [2021] PIER 170 [2021] PIER 169 [2020] PIER 168 [2020] PIER 167 [2020] PIER 166 [2019] PIER 165 [2019] PIER 164 [2019] PIER 163 [2018] PIER 162 [2018] PIER 161 [2018] PIER 160 [2017] PIER 159 [2017] PIER 158 [2017] PIER 157 [2016] PIER 156 [2016] PIER 155 [2016] PIER 154 [2015] PIER 153 [2015] PIER 152 [2015] PIER 151 [2015] PIER 150 [2015] PIER 149 [2014] PIER 148 [2014] PIER 147 [2014] PIER 146 [2014] PIER 145 [2014] PIER 144 [2014] PIER 143 [2013] PIER 142 [2013] PIER 141 [2013] PIER 140 [2013] PIER 139 [2013] PIER 138 [2013] PIER 137 [2013] PIER 136 [2013] PIER 135 [2013] PIER 134 [2013] PIER 133 [2013] PIER 132 [2012] PIER 131 [2012] PIER 130 [2012] PIER 129 [2012] PIER 128 [2012] PIER 127 [2012] PIER 126 [2012] PIER 125 [2012] PIER 124 [2012] PIER 123 [2012] PIER 122 [2012] PIER 121 [2011] PIER 120 [2011] PIER 119 [2011] PIER 118 [2011] PIER 117 [2011] PIER 116 [2011] PIER 115 [2011] PIER 114 [2011] PIER 113 [2011] PIER 112 [2011] PIER 111 [2011] PIER 110 [2010] PIER 109 [2010] PIER 108 [2010] PIER 107 [2010] PIER 106 [2010] PIER 105 [2010] PIER 104 [2010] PIER 103 [2010] PIER 102 [2010] PIER 101 [2010] PIER 100 [2010] PIER 99 [2009] PIER 98 [2009] PIER 97 [2009] PIER 96 [2009] PIER 95 [2009] PIER 94 [2009] PIER 93 [2009] PIER 92 [2009] PIER 91 [2009] PIER 90 [2009] PIER 89 [2009] PIER 88 [2008] PIER 87 [2008] PIER 86 [2008] PIER 85 [2008] PIER 84 [2008] PIER 83 [2008] PIER 82 [2008] PIER 81 [2008] PIER 80 [2008] PIER 79 [2008] PIER 78 [2008] PIER 77 [2007] PIER 76 [2007] PIER 75 [2007] PIER 74 [2007] PIER 73 [2007] PIER 72 [2007] PIER 71 [2007] PIER 70 [2007] PIER 69 [2007] PIER 68 [2007] PIER 67 [2007] PIER 66 [2006] PIER 65 [2006] PIER 64 [2006] PIER 63 [2006] PIER 62 [2006] PIER 61 [2006] PIER 60 [2006] PIER 59 [2006] PIER 58 [2006] PIER 57 [2006] PIER 56 [2006] PIER 55 [2005] PIER 54 [2005] PIER 53 [2005] PIER 52 [2005] PIER 51 [2005] PIER 50 [2005] PIER 49 [2004] PIER 48 [2004] PIER 47 [2004] PIER 46 [2004] PIER 45 [2004] PIER 44 [2004] PIER 43 [2003] PIER 42 [2003] PIER 41 [2003] PIER 40 [2003] PIER 39 [2003] PIER 38 [2002] PIER 37 [2002] PIER 36 [2002] PIER 35 [2002] PIER 34 [2001] PIER 33 [2001] PIER 32 [2001] PIER 31 [2001] PIER 30 [2001] PIER 29 [2000] PIER 28 [2000] PIER 27 [2000] PIER 26 [2000] PIER 25 [2000] PIER 24 [1999] PIER 23 [1999] PIER 22 [1999] PIER 21 [1999] PIER 20 [1998] PIER 19 [1998] PIER 18 [1998] PIER 17 [1997] PIER 16 [1997] PIER 15 [1997] PIER 14 [1996] PIER 13 [1996] PIER 12 [1996] PIER 11 [1995] PIER 10 [1995] PIER 09 [1994] PIER 08 [1994] PIER 07 [1993] PIER 06 [1992] PIER 05 [1991] PIER 04 [1991] PIER 03 [1990] PIER 02 [1990] PIER 01 [1989]
2017-07-24
Illumination Optics in Emerging Naked-Eye 3D Display (Invited Review)
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 159, 93-124, 2017
Abstract
Illumination optics in emerging naked-eye 3D display, especially in time-spatial multiplexing, or directional backlight naked-eye 3D display system, is systematically examined. Key issues in directional backlight system include: 1) Directional transmission of the left- and right-eye images to the corresponding viewing zone with small crosstalk; 2) The luminance on the screen should be homogeneous even for the viewers moving around. In this paper, we propose an adaptive optimization solution based on root mean square (RMS) for the design of illumination optics of the naked-eye 3D system. Based on the designed free-form backlight illumination, the overall design schemes for both single-user and multi-user naked-eye 3D display are proposed and demonstrated. By utilizing the novel dynamic synchronized backlight technique, the temporal crosstalk is effectively brought into control. The display defects such as the dark bands appearing at the joints of the lens array or at the middle of the Fresnel lens are simulated numerically and tested experimentally, hence providing effective design guidelines for the optical components as well as their fabrication error tolerance. Additionally, we propose a continuous backlight technique to improve the luminance homogeneity. Furthermore, a quantitative evaluation mechanism for the moiré pattern based on the Fourier analysis method, by introducing the contrast sensitivity function (CSF), is presented. A novel arrangement of a quasi-random RGB sub-pixel array is proposed to reduce the visibility of moiré pattern. As a result, full HD glassless 3D display suitable for glassless virtual and augmented realities is demonstrated with an unprecedented display quality.
Citation
Aiqin Zhang Jiahui Wang Yangui Zhou Haowen Liang Hang Fan Kunyang Li Peter Krebs Jianying Zhou , "Illumination Optics in Emerging Naked-Eye 3D Display (Invited Review)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 159, 93-124, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIER17060101
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=17060101
References

1. Dodgson, N. A., "Autostereoscopic 3D displays," Computer, Vol. 38, No. 8, 31-36, 2005.
doi:10.1109/MC.2005.252

2. Konrad, J. and M. Halle, "3-D displays and signal processing," IEEE Signal Process. Mag., Vol. 24, No. 6, 97-111, 2007.
doi:10.1109/MSP.2007.905706

3. Ferroli, P., et al., "Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery," Neurosurgery, Vol. 72, No. 1, 54-62, 2013.
doi:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182748ee8

4. Lucente, M., "Interactive three-dimensional holographic displays: Seeing the future in depth," ACM Siggraph Computer Graphics, Vol. 31, No. 2, 63-67, 1997.
doi:10.1145/271283.271312

5. Ta, S., et al., "An updatable holographic three-dimension," Nature, Vol. 451, No. 7179, 694-698, 2008.
doi:10.1038/nature06596

6. Wan, W., et al., "Multiview holographic 3D dynamic display by combining a nano-grating patterned phase plate and LCD," Optics Express, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1114, 2017.
doi:10.1364/OE.25.001114

7. Ney, D. R., E. K. Fishman, and D. Magid, "Three-dimensional volumetric display of CT data: Effect of scan parameters upon image quality," Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Vol. 15, No. 15, 875-885, 1991.
doi:10.1097/00004728-199109000-00033

8. Blundell, B. G. and A. J. Schwarz, "The classification of volumetric display systems: Characteristics and predictability of the image space," IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 66-75, 2002.
doi:10.1109/2945.981852

9. Kumagai, K., et al., "Volumetric display with holographic parallel optical access and multilayer fluorescent screen," Optics Letters, Vol. 40, No. 14, 3356-3359, 2015.
doi:10.1364/OL.40.003356

10. Dodgson, N. A., "Analysis of the viewing zone of the Cambridge autostereoscopic display," Applied Optics, Vol. 35, No. 10, 1705-1710, 1996.
doi:10.1364/AO.35.001705

11. Matusik, W. and H. Pfister, "3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes," ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 23, No. 3, 814-824, 2004.
doi:10.1145/1015706.1015805

12. Urey, H., et al., "State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 4, 540-555, 2011.
doi:10.1109/JPROC.2010.2098351

13. Liou, J. C. and F. H. Chen, "Design and fabrication of optical system for time-multiplex autostereoscopic display," Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 12, 11007-11017, 2011.
doi:10.1364/OE.19.011007

14. Zeng, X. Y., et al., "Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3DLED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio," Optics Communications, Vol. 389, 159-164, 2017.
doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2016.12.042

15. Chen, D., X. Sang, and X. Yu, "Improved halftoning method for autostereoscopic display based on float grid-division multiplexing," Optics Express, Vol. 24, No. 16, 18114, 2016.
doi:10.1364/OE.24.018114

16. Allison, R. S., B. J. Rogers, and M. F. Bradshaw, "Geometric and induced effects in binocular stereopsis and motion parallax," Vision Research, Vol. 43, No. 17, 1879-1893, 2003.
doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(03)00298-0

17. Donaldson, J. K., et al., "New parallaxes and a convergence analysis for the TW Hya association," Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 833, No. 1, 2016.
doi:10.3847/1538-4357/833/1/95

18. Johnson, P. V., J. Kim, and M. S. Banks, "Stereoscopic 3D display technique using spatiotemporal interlacing has improved spatial and temporal properties," Optics Express, Vol. 23, No. 7, 9252, 2015.
doi:10.1364/OE.23.009252

19. Mphepo, W., Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, "Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption," Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 60-64, 2009.
doi:10.1109/JDT.2009.2031655

20. Kim, S. K., et al., "Parallax barrier engineering for image quality improvement in an autostereoscopic 3D display," Optics Express, Vol. 23, No. 10, 13230-13244, 2015.
doi:10.1364/OE.23.013230

21. Yoon, K. H., et al., "Diffraction effects incorporated design of a parallax barrier for a high-density multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display," Optics Express, Vol. 24, No. 4, 4057, 2016.
doi:10.1364/OE.24.004057

22. Kim, H., J. Hahn, and H. J. Choi, "Numerical investigation on the viewing angle of a lenticular three-dimensional display with a triplet lens array," Applied Optics, Vol. 50, No. 11, 1534-1540, 2011.
doi:10.1364/AO.50.001534

23. Mumberson, S., "Persistence of vision," Computer Science & Communications Dictionary, Vol. 35, No. 1, 44-44, 2004.

24. Fan, H., et al., "Full resolution, low crosstalk, and wideviewing angle autostereoscopic display with a hybrid spatial-temporal control using free-form surface backlight unit," Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 11, No. 7, 620-624, 2015.
doi:10.1109/JDT.2015.2425432

25. Wang, P. C., et al., "System cross-talk and three-dimensional cue issues in autostereoscopic displays," J. Electron. Imaging, Vol. 22, No. 1, 013032, 2013.
doi:10.1117/1.JEI.22.1.013032

26. Kooi, F. L. and A. Toet, "Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays," Displays, Vol. 25, No. 2–3, 99-108, 2004.
doi:10.1016/j.displa.2004.07.004

27. Wang, J., et al., "High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control," Applied Optics, Vol. 52, No. 35, 8549-8553, 2013.
doi:10.1364/AO.52.008549

28. Liang, H., et al., "Optimizing time-multiplexing auto-stereoscopic displays with a genetic algorithm," Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 10, No. 8, 695-699, 2014.
doi:10.1109/JDT.2014.2314138

29. Zhou, Y., et al., "Simulation and control of display uniformity in a backlight illuminated image array," Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 12, No. 7, 355-362, 2016.
doi:10.1109/JDT.2016.2524008

30. Li, K., et al., "Visual effect of a linear Fresnel lens illuminated with a directional backlight," Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 33, No. 6, 1155, 2016.
doi:10.1364/JOSAA.33.001155

31. Jacobs, D. H., "The stiles-crawford effect and the design of telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., Vol. 34, No. 11, 694-694, 1944.
doi:10.1364/JOSA.34.000694

32. Moon, P. and D. E. Spencer, "On the stiles-crawford effect," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., Vol. 34, No. 6, 319-329, 1944.
doi:10.1364/JOSA.34.000319

33. Kong, L., G. Jin, and T. Wang, "Analysis of Moir´e minimization in autostereoscopic parallax displays," Opt. Express, Vol. 21, No. 22, 26068-26079, 2013.
doi:10.1364/OE.21.026068

34. Saveljev, V. V., et al., "Moire minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays," J. Disp. Technol., Vol. 1, No. 2, 347-353, 2005.
doi:10.1109/JDT.2005.858869

35. Kim, Y., et al., "Color moire pattern simulation and analysis in threedimensionalintegral imaging for finding the moire-reduced tilted angle of a lens array," Appl. Opt., Vol. 48, No. 11, 2178-2187, 2009.
doi:10.1364/AO.48.002178

36. Zhou, Y., et al., "Quantitative measurement and control of optical Moir´e pattern in an autostereoscopic liquid crystal display system," Applied Optics, Vol. 54, No. 6, 1521-1527, 2015.
doi:10.1364/AO.54.001521

37. Zhou, Y., et al., "Pseudo-random arranged color filter array for controlling moire patterns in display," Optics Express, Vol. 23, No. 23, 29390, 2015.
doi:10.1364/OE.23.029390

38. Laurent, B., et al., "Digital camera images processing of hard-to-cook beans," Journal of Engineering & Technology Research, Vol. 2, 177-188, 2010.