Vol. 37
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIER 176 [2023] PIER 175 [2022] PIER 174 [2022] PIER 173 [2022] PIER 172 [2021] PIER 171 [2021] PIER 170 [2021] PIER 169 [2020] PIER 168 [2020] PIER 167 [2020] PIER 166 [2019] PIER 165 [2019] PIER 164 [2019] PIER 163 [2018] PIER 162 [2018] PIER 161 [2018] PIER 160 [2017] PIER 159 [2017] PIER 158 [2017] PIER 157 [2016] PIER 156 [2016] PIER 155 [2016] PIER 154 [2015] PIER 153 [2015] PIER 152 [2015] PIER 151 [2015] PIER 150 [2015] PIER 149 [2014] PIER 148 [2014] PIER 147 [2014] PIER 146 [2014] PIER 145 [2014] PIER 144 [2014] PIER 143 [2013] PIER 142 [2013] PIER 141 [2013] PIER 140 [2013] PIER 139 [2013] PIER 138 [2013] PIER 137 [2013] PIER 136 [2013] PIER 135 [2013] PIER 134 [2013] PIER 133 [2013] PIER 132 [2012] PIER 131 [2012] PIER 130 [2012] PIER 129 [2012] PIER 128 [2012] PIER 127 [2012] PIER 126 [2012] PIER 125 [2012] PIER 124 [2012] PIER 123 [2012] PIER 122 [2012] PIER 121 [2011] PIER 120 [2011] PIER 119 [2011] PIER 118 [2011] PIER 117 [2011] PIER 116 [2011] PIER 115 [2011] PIER 114 [2011] PIER 113 [2011] PIER 112 [2011] PIER 111 [2011] PIER 110 [2010] PIER 109 [2010] PIER 108 [2010] PIER 107 [2010] PIER 106 [2010] PIER 105 [2010] PIER 104 [2010] PIER 103 [2010] PIER 102 [2010] PIER 101 [2010] PIER 100 [2010] PIER 99 [2009] PIER 98 [2009] PIER 97 [2009] PIER 96 [2009] PIER 95 [2009] PIER 94 [2009] PIER 93 [2009] PIER 92 [2009] PIER 91 [2009] PIER 90 [2009] PIER 89 [2009] PIER 88 [2008] PIER 87 [2008] PIER 86 [2008] PIER 85 [2008] PIER 84 [2008] PIER 83 [2008] PIER 82 [2008] PIER 81 [2008] PIER 80 [2008] PIER 79 [2008] PIER 78 [2008] PIER 77 [2007] PIER 76 [2007] PIER 75 [2007] PIER 74 [2007] PIER 73 [2007] PIER 72 [2007] PIER 71 [2007] PIER 70 [2007] PIER 69 [2007] PIER 68 [2007] PIER 67 [2007] PIER 66 [2006] PIER 65 [2006] PIER 64 [2006] PIER 63 [2006] PIER 62 [2006] PIER 61 [2006] PIER 60 [2006] PIER 59 [2006] PIER 58 [2006] PIER 57 [2006] PIER 56 [2006] PIER 55 [2005] PIER 54 [2005] PIER 53 [2005] PIER 52 [2005] PIER 51 [2005] PIER 50 [2005] PIER 49 [2004] PIER 48 [2004] PIER 47 [2004] PIER 46 [2004] PIER 45 [2004] PIER 44 [2004] PIER 43 [2003] PIER 42 [2003] PIER 41 [2003] PIER 40 [2003] PIER 39 [2003] PIER 38 [2002] PIER 37 [2002] PIER 36 [2002] PIER 35 [2002] PIER 34 [2001] PIER 33 [2001] PIER 32 [2001] PIER 31 [2001] PIER 30 [2001] PIER 29 [2000] PIER 28 [2000] PIER 27 [2000] PIER 26 [2000] PIER 25 [2000] PIER 24 [1999] PIER 23 [1999] PIER 22 [1999] PIER 21 [1999] PIER 20 [1998] PIER 19 [1998] PIER 18 [1998] PIER 17 [1997] PIER 16 [1997] PIER 15 [1997] PIER 14 [1996] PIER 13 [1996] PIER 12 [1996] PIER 11 [1995] PIER 10 [1995] PIER 09 [1994] PIER 08 [1994] PIER 07 [1993] PIER 06 [1992] PIER 05 [1991] PIER 04 [1991] PIER 03 [1990] PIER 02 [1990] PIER 01 [1989]
0000-00-00
Polarimetric Emission Model of the Sea at Microwave Frequencies and Comparison with Measurements
By
, Vol. 37, 1-30, 2002
Abstract
At wo-scale scattering model of the sea developed in terms of wind-generated stochastic processes of the surface-the elevation spectral density of the small-scale structure and the probability density of slopes of the large scale roughness-is combined with the Durden/Vesecky [1] wave height spectral model to analyze recent polarimetric measurements. Ad hoc parameter values are found for the wave model that allow the two-scale model to account for essentially all of the azimuthal features, amplitude and phase, appearing in all four Stokes parameters for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) aircraft measurements at 19.35 and 37 GHz [2] and recent Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) aircraft measurements at 10.7 GHz. The excellent agreement provides support for the validation of the approximations of the two-scale model for the range of conditions encountered. The ad hoc parameters of the wave model are developed using the 19.35 and 37.0 GHz data and then tested with 10.7 GHz data. The twoscale model should be useful in studies dealing with simulations and retrievals of surface wind direction from satellite-based polarimetric measurements.
Citation
Peter W. Gaiser , "Polarimetric Emission Model of the Sea at Microwave Frequencies and Comparison with Measurements," , Vol. 37, 1-30, 2002.
doi:10.2528/PIER01100800
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=0110080
References

1. Durden, S. L. and J. F. Vesecky, "Aph ysical radar cross-section model for a wind-driven sea with swell," J. Ocean Engr., Vol. 10, No. 4, 445-451, 1985.
doi:10.1109/JOE.1985.1145133

2. Yueh, S. H., "Modeling of wind direction signals in polarimetric sea surface brightness temperatures," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, No. 6, 1400-1418, 1997.
doi:10.1109/36.649793

3. Yueh, S. H., W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, W. B. Ricketts, and S. V. Nghiem, "Polarimetric brightness temperatures of sea surfaces measured with aircraft K- and Ka-band radiometers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 5, 1177-1187, 1997.
doi:10.1109/36.628785

4. Chang, P. S., P. W. Gaiser, L. Li, and K. M. St. Germain, "Multi-frequency polarimetric microwave ocean wind direction retrievals," Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Singapore, 1997.

5. Yueh, S. H., W. J. Wilson, S. J. DiNardo, and F. K. Li, "Polarimetric microwave brightness signatures of ocean wind direction," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 2, 949-959, 1999.
doi:10.1109/36.752213

6. Wentz, F. J., "Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 30, No. 5, 960-972, 1992.
doi:10.1109/36.175331

7. Meissner, T. and F. J. Wentz, "An updated analysis of the ocean surface wind direction signal in passive microwave brightness temperatures," submitted to IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 2002.

8. Chang, P. S. and L. Li, "Ocean surface wind speed and direction retrievals from the SSM/I," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1866-1871, 1998.
doi:10.1109/36.729357

9. Wick, G. A., J. J. Bates, and C. C. Gottschall, "Observational evidence of a wind direction signal in SSM/I passive microwave data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 38, No. 2, 823-837, 2000.
doi:10.1109/36.842011

10. Piepmeier, J. R. and A. J. Gasiewski, "High-resolution passive polarimetric microwave mapping of the ocean surface wind vector fields," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 3, 606-622, 2001.
doi:10.1109/36.911118

11. Hollinger, J. P., "Passive microwave measurements of sea surface roughness," IEEE Trans. Geoscience Elect., Vol. 9, No. 3, 165-169, 1971.
doi:10.1109/TGE.1971.271489

12. Stogryn, A. P., "The apparent temperature of the sea at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 15, No. 2, 278-286, 1967.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1967.1138900

13. Cox, C. S. and W. H. Munk, "Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter," J. Opt. Soc. Am., Vol. 44, 838-850, 1954.
doi:10.1364/JOSA.44.000838

14. Hollinger, J. P., "Passive microwave measurements of the sea surface," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 75, No. 27, 5209-5213, 1970.
doi:10.1029/JC075i027p05209

15. Semyonov, B. I., "Approximate computation of scattering of electromagnetic waves by rough surface contours," Radio Eng. Electron Phys., Vol. 11, 1179-1187, 1966.

16. Wu, S. T. and A. K. Fung, "A non-coherent model for microwave emissions and backscattering from the sea surface," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 77, No. 30, 5917-5929, 1972.
doi:10.1029/JC077i030p05917

17. Wentz, F. J., "At wo-scale scattering model for foam-free sea microwave brightness temperatures," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 80, No. 24, 3441-3446, 1975.
doi:10.1029/JC080i024p03441

18. Yueh, S. H., et al., "Polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors," Radio Sci., Vol. 29, No. 4, 799-814, 1994.
doi:10.1029/94RS00450

19. Poe, G. A., K. M. St. Germain, and P. W. Gaiser, "Theory of polarimetric emission model of the sea at microwave frequencies,", Naval Research Laboratory Technical Memorandum Report, in press, 2002.

20. Stogryn, A. P., "A study of radiometric emission from a rough sea surface,", NASA Report CR-2088, Contract 1-10633, 1972.

21. Durden, S. L. and J. F. Vesecky, "An umerical study of the separation wavenumber in the two-scale scattering approximation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 28, No. 2, 271-272, 1990.
doi:10.1109/36.46707

22. Fung, A. K. and K. K. Lee, "A semi-empirical sea-spectrum model for scattering coefficient estimation," IEEE Ocean Engr., Vol. 7, No. 4, 166-176, 1982.
doi:10.1109/JOE.1982.1145535

23. Donelan, M. A., W. J. Pierson, and Jr., "Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges and wind-generated waves with application to scatterometry," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 92, No. C5, 4971-5029, 1987.
doi:10.1029/JC092iC05p04971

24. Stogryn, A. P., "Equations for the permittivity of sea water,", Report to Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., Code 7223, Aug. 1997.

25. Yueh, S. H., W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, W. B. Ricketts, and S. V. Nghiem, "Polarimetric measurements of sea surface brightness temperatures using an aircraft K-band radiometer," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 1, 85-92, 1995.
doi:10.1109/36.368219

26. Kunkee, D. B. and A. J. Gasiewski, "Simulation of passive microwave wind direction signatures over the ocean using an asymmetrices wave geometrical optics model," Radio Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, 59-78, Jan. 1997.
doi:10.1029/96RS02434