We present a novel outdoor-indoor radio wave propagation model. It predicts the electric field envelope Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) in a room placed near a radio communication emitter. The experimental CDF obtained from the simulation, fits the experimental CDF obtained from a measurement campaign carried out over 19200 sampling points inside the room. The maximum deviation found between these CDFs is less than 1%. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is employed to analyze the goodness of fit. P-values around 99% are reached. A comparison is made with other classical methods reported in the literature as ray-tracing (RT) and a hybrid method employing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) together with RT. The proposed model significantly improves the results achieved in those previous investigations. Although we study the problem in three dimensions, the repetitive nature of the algorithm allows us to parallelize the computation process speeding the calculations.
Juan Blas Prieto,
Patricia Fernandez Reguero,
Ruben Mateo Lorenzo Toledo,
Evaristo Jose Abril,
Santiago Mazuelas Franco,
Alfonso Bahillo Martinez,
"A Model for Transition Between Outdoor and Indoor Propagation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,
Vol. 85, 147-167, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08072101
1. Iskander, M. F. and Z. Yun, "Propagation prediction models for wireless communication systems," Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 50, 662-673, 2002. doi:10.1109/22.989951
2. Seidel, S. Y. and T. S. Rappaport, "Site-specific propagation prediction for wireless in-building personal communication system design," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 43, 879-891, 1994. doi:10.1109/25.330150
3. Corazza, G. E., V. Degli-Esposti, M. Frullone, and G. Riva, "A characterization of indoor space and frequency diversity by ray-tracing modeling," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 14, 411-419, 1996. doi:10.1109/49.490226
4. Yang, C., B. Wu, and C. Ko, "A ray-tracing method for modeling indoor wave propagation and penetration," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 46, 907-919, 1998. doi:10.1109/8.686780
5. Liang, G. and H. L. Bertoni, "A new approach to 3D ray tracing for propagation in cities," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 46, 853-863, 1998. doi:10.1109/8.686774
6. Zhang, Z., K. R. Soresen, Z. Yun, M. F. Iskander, and J. F. Harvey, "A ray-tracing approach for indoor/outdoor propagation through window structures," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, 742-748, 2002. doi:10.1109/TAP.2002.1011242
7. Kara, A. and E. Yazgan, "Modelling of shadowing loss due to huge non-polygonal structures in urban radio propagation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 6, 123-134, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08031209
8. Wang, N., Y. Zhang, and C. H. Liang, "Creeping ray-tracing algorithm of UTD method based on NURBS models with the source on surface," Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 14, 1981-1990, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306779322602
9. Liang, C., Z. Liu, and H. Di, "Study on the blockage of electromagnetic rays analytically," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 1, 253-268, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB07102902
10. Blas, J., F. A. Lago, P. Fernandez, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, "Potential exposure assessment errors associated with body-worn RF dosimeters," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 28, 573-576, 2007. doi:10.1002/bem.20355
11. Wang, M. Y., J. Xu, J. Wu, Y. B. Yan, and H. L. Li, "FDTD study on scattering of metallic column covered by doublenegative metamaterial," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 14, 1905-1914, 2007. doi:10.1163/156939307783152777
12. Lee, F. W. H. and A. K. Y. Lai, "FDTD analysis of indoor radio propagation," IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation Society, Vol. 13, 1664-1667, 1998.
13. Pahlavan, K. and A. H. Levesque, Wireless Information Networks, Wiley Series in Telecommunications and Signal Processing, Wiley, 1995.
14. Talbi, L. and G. Y. Delisle, "Finite difference time domain characterization of indoor radio propagation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 12, 251-275, 1996. doi:10.1163/156939307783239410
15. Ali, M. and S. Sanyal, "A numerical investigation of finite ground planes and reflector effects on monopole antenna factor," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 10, 1379-1392, 2007. doi:10.1163/156939306775777224
16. Uduwawala, D., "Modeling and investigation of planar parabolic dipoles for GPR applications: A comparison with bow-tie using FDTD," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 2, 227-236, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306775777224
17. Golestani-Rad, L., J. Rashed-Mohassel, and M. M. Danaie, "Rigorous analysis of EM-wave penetration into a typical room using FDTD method: The Transfer Function concept," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 7, 913-926, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306776149851
18. Wang, Y., S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. K. Chaundhuri, "A hybrid technique based on combining ray tracing and FDTD methods for site-specific modeling of indoor radio wave propagation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, 743-754, 2000. doi:10.1109/8.855493
19. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, "Human exposure to radio base-station antennas in urban environment," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 48, 1996-2002, 2000. doi:10.1109/22.848494
20. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, P. D'Atanasio, E. Di Palma, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, "FDTD, multiple-region/FDTD, raytracing/ FDTD," International Journal of Numerical Modelling, Vol. 15, 579-593, 2002. doi:10.1002/jnm.470
21. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, R. Ceccetti, S. Pisa, E. Piuzzi, and O. Testa, "A UTD/FDTD investigation on procedures to assess compliance of cellular base-station antennas with human-humanexposure," Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 51, 2109-2417, 2003.
22. Martınez-Burdalo, M., A. Martın, V. Pizarro, and R. Villar, "An efficient FDTD-time-domain equivalent currents method for safety assessment in human exposure to base-station antennas in presence of obstacles," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 48, 1987-1990, 2006. doi:10.1002/mop.21818
23. Simthson, A. G. and I. A. Glover, "Prediction of attenuation and delay-spread for systems with outdoor basestations and indoor users," Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, 265-268, 2006. doi:10.1109/ECWT.2006.280487
24. Noori, N. and H. Oraizi, "Evaluation of MIMO channel capacity in indoor environments using vector parabolic equation method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 4, 13-25, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB07121903
25. Guo, S. X., Y. Gao, and L. X. Zhang, "Simulation research on turbo equlization algorithm based on microwave fading channel," PIER Letters, Vol. 4, 99-107, 2008.
26. Wu, B. I., F. C. A. I. Cox, and J. A. Kong, "Experimental methodology for non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on biologics," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 4, 533-548, 2007. doi:10.1163/156939307780616829
27. Lee, S. H. and R. C. Rudduck, "Aperture integration and GTD techniques used in the NEC reflector antenna code," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 33, 189-194, 1985.
28. Teh, C. H., F. Kung, and H. T. Chuah, "A path-corrected wall model for ray-tracing propagation modeling," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 2, 207-214, 2006. doi:10.1163/156939306775777288
29. Blas, J., A. Bahillo, S. Mazuelas, D. Bullido, P. Fernandez, R. M. Lorenzo, and E. J. Abril, "Scanning device for sampling the spatial distribution of the E-field," Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 14, 199-203, 2007.
30. Helhel, S., S. Ozen, and H. Goksu, "Investigation of GSM signal variation depending weather conditions," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 1, 147-157, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB07101503
31. Press, W. H., B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1992.
32. Horikoshi, J., D. Tanaka, and T. Morinaga, "1.2 GHz band wave propagation measurements in concrete building for indoor radio communications," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technoloty, Vol. 35, 146-152, 1986. doi:10.1109/T-VT.1986.24084