We present a robust multiple-channel vector-matching localization approach (MCVM) based on signal strength difference (SSD) fingerprinting of ZigBee Network. Compared with some existing algorithms, our presented approach has threefold advantages: firstly, far fewer numbers of received signal strength(RSS) measurements and reference nodes are needed; secondly, it shows more robustness to the fluctuation of RSS; thirdly, it requires low time-consuming signal strength collection surveys in the location space. We demonstrate the performances of our algorithm experimentally using different numbers of channels, reference nodes and training points. The Cramer-Rao Low Bound(CRLB) of SSD is derived in order to compare the performance of the different localization methods addressed. The experiment results show the efficacy of our proposed approach.
1. Tayebi, A., J. Gomez, F. Saez de Adana, and O. Gutierrez, "The application of ray-tracing to mobile localization using the direction of arrival and received signal strength in multipath indoor environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 91, 1-15, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09020301
2. Bulusu, N., J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices," IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 7, No. 5, 28-34, 2000. doi:10.1109/98.878533
4. Seow, C. and S. Tan, "GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 85, No. 5, 323-348, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08090302
5. Tao, P., A. Rudys, A. Ladd, and D. Wallach, "Wireless LAN location-sensing for security applications," ACM, 11-20, 2003.
6. Zeimpekis, V., G. M. Giaglis, and G. Lekakos, "A taxonomy of indoor and outdoor positioning techniques for mobile location services," ACM SIGecom Exchanges, Vol. 3, No. 4, 19-27, 2002. doi:10.1145/844351.844355
7. Liu, H., H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, and J. Liu, "Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1067-1080, 2007. doi:10.1109/TSMCC.2007.905750
8. Hossain, A., Y. Jin, S. Wee-Seng, and H. Van, "SSD: A robust RF location fingerprint addressing mobile devices' heterogeneity," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 12, No. 1, 65-77, 2013. doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.243
9. Staniec, K., "Evaluation of the zigbee transmission repetition mechanism in the variably-loaded reverberation chamber," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 132, 297-314, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER12081308
10. Mahtab Hossain, A., H. Van, Y. Jin, and W. Soh, "Indoor localization using multiple wireless technologies," IEEE Internatonal Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, MASS 2007, 1-8, 2007. doi:10.1109/MOBHOC.2007.4428622
11. Baronti, P., P. Pillai, V. Chook, S. Chessa, A. Gotta, and Y. Hu, "Wireless sensor networks: A survey on the state of the art and the 802.15. 4 and ZigBee standards," Computer Communications, Vol. 30, No. 7, 1655-1695, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2006.12.020
12. Goncalo, G. and S. Helena, "Indoor location system using ZigBee technology," Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, SENSORCOMM'09, 152-157, 2009. doi:10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2009.31
13. Callaway, E., P. Gorday, L. Hester, J. Gutierrez, M. Naeve, B. Heile, and V. Bahl, "Home networking with IEEE 802.15. 4: A developing standard for low-rate wireless personal area networks ," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 8, 70-77, 2008. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2002.1024418
14. Rappaport, T. S., Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Vol. 2, Prentice Hall, PTR, , New Jersey, 1996.
15. Noh, A. S.-I., W. Lee, and J. Ye, "Comparison of the mechanisms of the ZigBee's indoor localization algorithm ," Ninth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Compu, 13-18, 2008. doi:10.1109/SNPD.2008.125
16. Sugano, M., T. Kawazoe, Y. Ohta, and M. Murata, "Sugano, M., T. Kawazoe, Y. Ohta, and M. Murata, \Indoor localization system using RSSI measurement of wireless sensor network based on ZigBee standard ," Target, Vol. 538, 050, 2006.
17. Zekavat, R. and R. Buehrer, Handbook of Position Location: Theory, Practice and Advances, Vol. 27, Wiley.com, 2011. doi:10.1002/9781118104750