Microwave tomography (MWT) and a radar-based region estimation technique are combined to create a novel algorithm for biomedical imaging with a focus on breast cancer detection and monitoring. The region estimation approach is used to generate a patient-specific spatial map of the breast anatomy that includes skin, adipose and fibroglandular regions, as well as their average dielectric properties. This map is incorporated as a numerical inhomogeneous background into an MWT algorithm based on the finite element contrast source inversion (FEM-CSI) method. The combined approach reconstructs finer structural details of the breast and better estimates the dielectric properties than either technique used separately. Numerical results obtained with the novel combined algorithmic approach, based on synthetically generated breast phantoms, show significant improvement in image quality.
1. Meaney, P. M., M. W. Fanning, T. Raynolds, C. J. Fox, Q. Fang, C. A. Kogel, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial clinical experience with microwave breast imaging in women with normal mammography," Academic Radiology, Vol. 14, No. 2, 207-218, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2006.10.016
2. Poplack, , S. P., T. D. Tosteson, W. A. Wells, B. W. Pogue, P. M. Meaney, A. Hartov, C. A. Kogel, S. K. Soho, J. J. Gibson, and K. D. Paulsen, "Electromagnetic breast imaging: Results of a pilot study in women with abnormal mammograms," Radiology, Vol. 243, No. 2, 350-359, 2007. doi:10.1148/radiol.2432060286
3. Lazebnik, M., et al., "A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 52, No. 20, 6093, 2007. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/20/002
4. Fear, E., J. Bourqui, C. Curtis, D. Mew, B. Docktor, and C. Romano, "Microwave breast imaging with a monostatic radar-based system: A study of application to patients," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2119-2128, 2013. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2013.2255884
5. Zakaria, A., C. Gilmore, and J. LoVetri, "Finite-element contrast source inversion method for microwave imaging," Inverse Problems, Vol. 26, No. 11, 115010, 2010. doi:10.1088/0266-5611/26/11/115010
6. Zakaria, A. and J. LoVetri, "Application of multiplicative regularization to the finite-element contrast source inversion method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 9, 3495-3498, Sep. 2011. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2161564
7. Grzegorczyk, T. M., P. M. Meaney, P. A. Kaufman, R. M. di Florio-Alexander, and K. D. Paulsen, "Fast 3-d tomographic microwave imaging for breast cancer detection," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol. 31, No. 8, 1584-1592, 2012. doi:10.1109/TMI.2012.2197218
8. Nikolova, N. K., "Microwave imaging for breast cancer," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 7, 78-94, 2011. doi:10.1109/MMM.2011.942702
9. Shea, J. D., P. Kosmas, S. C. Hagness, and B. D. Van Veen, "Three dimensional microwave imaging of realistic numerical breast phantoms via a multiple-frequency inverse scattering technique," Medical Physics, Vol. 37, 4210, 2010. doi:10.1118/1.3443569
10. Golnabi, A., P. Meaney, S. Geimer, and K. Paulsen, "Microwave imaging of the breast with incorporated structural information," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7626, 76260P, 2010. doi:10.1117/12.843855
11. Gilmore, C., A. Zakaria, S. Pistorius, and J. LoVetri, "Microwave imaging of human forearms: Pilot study and image enhancement," Journal of Biomedical Imaging, Vol. 2013, 19, 2013.
12. Fhager, A. and M. Persson, "Using a priori data to improve the reconstruction of small objects in microwave tomography," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 55, No. 11, 2454-2462, 2007. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2007.908670
13. Zakaria, A., A. Baran, and J. LoVetri, "Estimation and use of prior information in FEM-CSI for biomedical microwave tomography," Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 1606-1609, 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2237537
14. Kurrant, D. and E. Fear, "Technique to decompose nearfield reflection data generated from an object consisting of thin dielectric layers," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 8, 3684-3692, 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2201093
15. Kurrant, D. J. and E. C. Fear, "Regional estimation of the dielectric properties of inhomogeneous objects using near-field reflection data," Inverse Problems, Vol. 28, No. 7, 075001, 2012. doi:10.1088/0266-5611/28/7/075001
16. Semenov, S. Y. and D. R. Corfield, "Microwave tomography for brain imaging: Feasibility assessment for stroke detection," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2008, 8, 2008.